1 Mark Questions
Answer : It refers to the development of movement and various motor abilities from birth till death.
Answer : There are two types of motor skills:
i) Gross motor skills
ii) Fine motor skills
Answer : There are four stages of motor development in children as given below:
Infanthood -> Early childhood -> Middle childhood -> Later childhood
Answer : The advantages of making a correct posture are:
i) Increases flexibility
ii) Improves physical appearance
iii) More energy
Answer : Benefits of regular exercise are:
i) Improves blood circulation, which reduces the risk of heart disease.
ii) Prevents bone loss.
Answer : The causes of knock knee are:
- Weakness of muscles and ligaments
- Overweight body
- Lack of balanced diet
- Lack of vitamin D, calcium and phosphorous
Answer : Common postural deformities are:
- Flat foot
- Knock knee
- Bow legs
3 Marks Questions
Answer : There are two types of motor skills:
i) Gross Motor Skills : It refers to the use of larger muscles of the skeleton to maintain psture and balance for activities like throwing, walking, running etc.
ii) Fine Motor Skills : It refers to the use of smaller muscles of the hands, feet and face like speaking, writing etc.
Answer : The developmental characteristics are as follows/Some of the body movements started by the infant are:
- Extends arm in front of eyes on the side to which the head is turned, other arm flexed,
- Lifts one foot after another in stepping response.
- spontaneous grasp of adult’s finger.
- Rolls from side to back.
- Stands and walks alone.
Answer : This period is also known as preschool years age and the movements during this period are:
- Ball handling.
- Fine eye coordination.
- Walking leads to running, jumping, hopping, galloping and skipping.
- Skipping, kicking and balance mechanisms.
- A full kick and backswing,
Answer : Yes, endurance influences motor development of children. Endurance is the ability to maintain the exertion required for an activity. A child with poor endurance might be able to step up one stair but not climb a flight of stairs. Endurance involves many factors such as muscle tone and strength, heart and lung function and motivation.
Answer : These are three types of spinal curvature:
i) Lordosis : It is the inward curvature of the spine or a deformity of spinal curvature. It is an increased forward curve in the lumbar region. It creates problems in standing and walking.
ii) Kyphosis : It is a deformity f the spinal curvature in which there is an increase of exaggeration of backward curve or a decrease of a forward curve. It is also called round upper back.
iii) Scoliosis : It is a postural deformity of spinal curvature in which there is one large lateral curve extending through the whole length of the spine, or there may be two curves. This type of deformity is also called curve.
Answer : In this posture, parts of the body, head, shoulder and hip should be placed in proper alignment with each other.
The weight of the person sitting should be supported over a large area, so as to equally distribute the pressure. The backbone should be erect with the upper region of the backbone straight against the back of the chair.
Answer : i) Risk Injury : Serious injuries have come from situations with home gym equipment when there was no supervision and the children playing around or challenging one another. Playing in unsupervised situations or youths attempting to do a maximum lift before they are physically developed have the risk of injuries. Injuries include muscle strains and tears, bone fractures, growth plate injuries and cartilage damage.
ii) Less Flexibility : Another disadvantage is the risk of non-flexibility. This happens when proper exercises to increase flexibility are not done along with weight training. If weight training is combined with flexibility exercises then this problem will not occur.
Answer : Round shoulders is a postural deformity in which the shoulders become round as they are drawn forward, the head is extended and the chin points forward.
The corrective measures are:
- Stand in the correct posture.
- Keep the finger tips of your shoulders and encircle your elbows in clockwise and anit-clockwise direction.
- Perform Chakrasana and Dhanurasana for some time.
- Hold the horizontal bar for some time.
5 Marks Questions
Answer : The period of childhood is marked by four stages i.e. infanthood, early, middle and later childhood. Each child has to pass through all these stages. These are explained as follows:
i) Infanthood (0-2 years)
- Hand eye coordination
- Lifting, rolling, crawling
- Standing and walking
ii) Early childhood (2-6 years)
- Basic locomotion
- Fine eye-coordination
- Running, jumping, kicking
iii) Middle childhood (6-12 years)
- Fine motor skills
- Very good eye-hand coordination
- Variety of movements
- Balance and coordination
iv) Later childhood (12 years above)
- Onset of puberty
- Girls taller and heavier than boys
- Developing strength
Answer : Motor development refers to the development of general body control, fine motor skills and large muscle movements. The development and quality of a child’s motor skills are influenced by many factors.
i) Tone : It refers to the ongoing contraction and state of the muscle at rest. Tone can be normal, hypotonic or hypertonic.
ii) Strength : It refers to the force of a muscle contraction purposefully exerted against resistance to carry out an activity. For example, a child with weak leg muscles might have trouble in standing or stepping up or down the staircase.
iii) Endurance : This is the ability to maintain the exertion required for an activity. Endurance involves many factors such as muscle tone and strength, heart and lung function and motivation.
iv) Balance : This is the delicate interaction of equilibrium centres in the brain with sensory input. Sensory input includes vision, body position, awareness and muscle strength and tone. All these factors work together to allow a child to maintain an upright posture and to move between positions needed for activities such as sitting, crawling, walking and reaching.
v) Motor Planning : It is the complex and often intuitive ability to know how to carry out the steps needed to complete a physical activity. Motor planning requires the coordination of the systems that regulate perception, sequencing, speed and intensity of movements.
vi) Sensory Integration : It is the ability to accurately interpret sensory input from the environment and to produce an appropriate motor response.
Answer : Weight training refers to the physical exercise that involves lifting weights to improve the performance of the muscles.
The advantages of weight training are as follows:
i) Improve Muscle Strength and Endurance : It tones up the muscles and joints and prevents them from injuries. It also helps children to maintain flexibility and balance weight management.
ii) Builds Physical Fitness : Weight training provides a good shape to the body and enhances physical fitness.
iii) Improves Sports Performance : It enhances athletic performance by developing strength and fitness.
The disadvantages of weight training are as follows:
i) Risk of Injury : Weight training not performed under supervision or by children, youths who put in severe effort may cause serious injuries.
thus, to perform weight training with a companion or a supporter is always advisable or to perform under supervision of an expert to avoid the worst to happen.
ii) Less Flexibility : It reduces the flexibility of the body if only weight training is done. Therefore, exercises to increase flexibility should also be done.
Answer : Correct posture is tone in which the body is so balanced as to produce least fatigue. It means that correct posture is the position of the body held without any sense of effort. The body weight should be equally distributed over both the legs and feet so as to produce least fatigue.
Correct posture may also be defined as that assumed position which enabled the body to perform or function effectively.
i) Correct Posture of Standing : In standing position, both the heels of the feet should meet each other. The whole body should be erect, knees straight, chin inside, chest forward , belly backward and pressed inside with equal body weight on both feet. In this position, the complete body should be balanced.
ii) Correct Posture of Sitting : When we sit in a chair, our hips should be in a straight line and erect. Legs should touch the ground and should not be in hanging position. Thighs should in horizontal position. The backbone should be erect with the upper region of the backbone straight against the back of the chair.
While we read, the book should be on the table but the book should not be too away or too near the eyes. The approximate distance between the book and eyes should be at least 30 cms. For writing, a table with slight inclination towards the outside is appropriate.
Causes of Bad Posture : Poor posture is the posture that results from certain muscles tightening up or shortening. There are different factors which can impact on posture. Some common causes for bad posture are given below:
- Pain or past injuries
- Low nutrition
- Hereditary reasons
- Overweight and obesity
- Type of job
- Lifestyle and fashion
Answer : Causes
- Weakness of muscles and ligaments.
- Lack of balanced diet.
- Lack of vitamin D, calcium and phosphorous.
- Overweight body.
- Balanced diet should be taken.
- Do not force the babies to walk at early age.
- Horse riding is to be done regularly.
- Keep a pillow between your knees whenever possible.
- Perform Padmasana and Gomukhasana.
- Take nutritious meals.
Answer : Five common postural deformities are:
i) Knock Knee : It is a postural deformity in which both the knees touch or overlap each other in normal standing position.
ii) Flat Foot : It is a deformity of the feet. In this deformity, there is no arch in the foot and the foot is completely flat.
iii) Round Shoulder : It is a postural deformity in which the shoulders become round as they are drawn forward, the head is extended with the chin pointing forward.
iv) Kyphosis : It is a deformity of the spinal curvature in which there is an increase or exaggeration of a backward curve.
v) Bow Legs : It is a deformity opposite to knock knee. In fact, if there is a wide gap between the knees, the deformity can be observed easily when an individual walks or runs.
Answer : Children may be exposed to weight training not earlier than 12 years, as development of gross and fine motor skills occurs till this age and weight training should be started only after the motor skills are fully developed.
Even after 12 years age, weight training by adolescents must be supervised by an experienced coach, as the children must learn the correct techniques and procedures, as many injuries occur when children compete with one another in lifting more weights. Recent research has indicated that adolescents can gain strength by weight training.
Value Based Questions
Answer : i) Obesity can be prevented by following a healthy diet and being physically active.
ii) Disadvantages of obesity are:
a) Health Hazards : Obese people are most vulnerable to a great number of disease and bodily malfunctions which result from the accumulation of excess body fat.
b) Personality Related Problems : An obese person generally suffers from psychological factors associated with abnormal body movement, lack of concentration, tiredness and sloppy attitude toward physical exercise and work, lack of energy and initiative etc.
iii) Values shown by Neeti and her classmates are concern for others’ health, understanding and self-discipline.
Answer : Exercise has been shown to have a positive influence on a child’s perception of itself providing a sense of accomplishment as a child masters the skills, improves its body image and its self-worth. This means being able to acknowledge our strengths and weakness and at the same time recognise that we are worthy and worthwhile.