1 Mark Questions
Question 1. What is a homogeneous society?
Answer : A society that has similar kinds of people, especially where there are no significant ethnic differences. For example, Germany and Sweden.
Question 2. Which University has recently installed the statues of Tommie Smith and John Carlos in its campus?
Answer : In 2005, the San Jose State University installed a 20-foot high sculpture representing the protest by Tommie Smith and John Carlos.
Question 3. Highlight the case of Northern Irelands in reference to cross-cutting of social differences.
Highlight the case of Northern Ireland with reference to overlapping of social differences.
Answer : In Northern Ireland, people are predominantly Christian but divided between Catholic and Protestants. Class and religion overlap with each other. Thus creating a possibility of deep social divisions and tensions. If you are Catholic, you are also more likely to be poor and you may have suffered a history of discrimination. The result is that Catholics and Protestants have conflicts in Northern Ireland.
Question 4. Give one example to show overlapping social differences create possibilities of deep social divisions and tensions.
Answer : Catholics and Protestants have had conflicts in Northern Ireland.
Question 5. Which group of countries did face the problem of social division?
Answer : Belgium, Sri Lanka and the United Kingdom.
Question 6. Who are represented by the term ‘African‑American’?
Answer : The descendants of Africa who were brought into America as slaves between the 17th century and early 19th century.
3 Marks Questions
Question 7. How far do the emergence of social differences lead to social division? Explain by giving a suitable example.
Answer : (i) If social differences cross cut one another, it is difficult to avoid clashes between the groups that hold different views.
(ii) It means that groups that share a common interest on one issue are likely to be in different sides of a different issue.
(iii) For example, in Northern Ireland, class and religion tend to overlap each other leading to social tensions.
Question 8. “Social division takes place when some social differences overlap with other differences.” Justify the statement.
Answer : (i) The difference between the Blacks and Whites becomes a social division in the US because the Blacks tend to be poor, homeless and discriminated against.
(ii) In our country, Dalits tend to be poor and landless. They often face discrimination and injustice.
(iii) One kind of social difference becomes more important when other people start feeling that they belong to different communities.
Question 9. Describe the consequences of Smith and Carlos reaction to the racial discrimination.
Answer : (i) Carlos and Smith were held guilty for violating the Olympic spirit by making political statement.
(ii) Medals were taken back.
(iii) Norman was not included in Australian team.
(iv) Action helped in gaining international attention for Civil Rights Movement. (Any three)
Question 10. What steps should be taken according to you to promote the unity among the people of India?
Answer : Following steps can be undertaken to promote the unity among the people of India:
(i) There should be equal opportunities of representation and no sort of discrimination existing in the society.
(ii) More and more people participation in political affairs should be encouraged.
(iii) Full religious tolerance and the leverage to minority group should be given to voice their opinion.
Question 11. “Attempts at forced integration often sow the seeds of disintegration.” Support the statement with suitable arguments.
Answer : (i) The above statement is true from the examples of Belgium and Sri Lanka. If the rulers are willing to share power and accommodate the reasonable demands of minority community, social divisions become less threatening for the country.
(ii) But if they suppress such a demand in the name of national unity, the end result is often quite the opposite.
Thus with such attempts at forced integration often saw the seeds of integration.
Question 12. Explain with example the role of political leaders to determine the outcome of politics of social divisions.
Answer : It depends on how political leaders raise the demands of any community. For example:
(i) It is easier to accommodate demands that are within the constitutional framework and are not at the cost of another community.
(ii) The demand for ‘only Sinhala’ was at the cost of the interest and identity of the Tamil community in Sri Lanka.
(iii) In Yugoslavia, the leaders of different ethnic communities presented their demands in such a way that these could not be accommodated within a single country.
Question 13. How is overlapping differences different from cross-cutting differences?
Answer : (i) Social differences which overlap other differences are known as overlapping differences, while when social differences cross-cut one another, it is known as cross-cutting differences.
(ii) Cross-cutting social differences are easier to accommodate, while overlapping differences are not.
(iii) Overlapping social differences create possibilities of deep social divisions and tensions, while cross-cutting differences do not usually lead to conflicts.
Question 14. Explain the two basis of social differences with examples.
Explain with example different forms of social differences.
Describe any three origins of social differences.
Answer : Different forms of social differences:
(i) Social differences are based on accident of birth. For example, people around us are male and female, they are tall and short, have different kinds of complexions, or have different physical abilities or disabilities.
(ii) Some differences are based on choices, e.g., some people are atheists. They don’t believe in God or any religion. Some people choose to follow a religion other than the one in which they were born.
Question 15. Explain overlapping of social differences with an example.
“Overlapping social differences create possibilities of deep social divisions and tensions.” Explain.
Answer : (i) When one social difference overlaps another difference, it is known as overlapping of social differences.
(ii) Overlapping of social differences between Blacks and Whites became a social division in the United States. These differences became the main factor for the Black Power Movement.
(iii) Even in India, Dalits face discrimination and injustice. These kinds of situations produce social divisions which are harmful for democracy and weaken the basic foundation of democracy.
Question 16. Why do some people think that it’s not correct to politicize social divisions? Give three reasons.
Answer : They think that it is not correct to politicize social divisions because:
(i) It can make social divisions into political division and lead to conflict, violence or even disintegration of a country.
(ii) In Northern Ireland, there has been a violent and bitter ethno-political conflict for many years.
(iii) It caused disintegration of Yugoslavia into six independent countries.
Question 17. What are the three factors that determine the outcome of social divisions on politics? Explain.
Describe the factors which decide the outcomes of the politics of social division?
Answer : Factors that determine the outcome of politics of social divisions:
(i) As social groups view their identities to be exclusive and superior, it becomes difficult to accommodate them.
(ii) It depends upon the type of demands raised by the political leaders on behalf of a community. It is easier to accommodate demands that are within the constitutional framework and are not at the cost of another community.
(iii) Reaction of the government to the demands of different communities determine the outcome. If the rulers are willing to share power and accommodate the reasonable demands of minority community, divisions become less threatening for the country.
Question 18. Distinguish between Civil Rights Movement (1954-1968) and The Black Power Movement (1966-1975) in the USA.
Answer : Civil Rights Movement: (1954-1968)
Refers to a set of events and reform movements aimed at legally abolishing racial discrimination against African-Americans. Led by Martin Luther King Junior, this movement practised nonviolent methods.
The Black Power Movement:
This Movement emerged in 1966 and lasted till 1975, which was more militant anti-racist movement, advocating even violence if necessary, to end racism in the US.
Question 19. How were Carlos, Smith and Norman penalized for their action at the 1968 Mexico Olympics?
Answer : (i) The International Olympic Committee took back the medals of Carlos and Smith.
(ii) There was a severe criticism of Carlos and Smith in the USA.
(iii) Norman was not included in the Australian team for the next Olympics.
Question 20. Taking the example of Carlos, Smith and Norman, explain how social differences divide similar people from one another but also unite very different people.
Answer : Social differences divide similar people from one another, but they also unite different people. People belonging to different social groups share differences and similarities cutting across the boundaries of their groups. People belonging to the same religion may feel different. Yet people from different religions may have similar views.
(i) For example, Carlos and Smith were similar in one way because both were African-Americans and thus different from Norman who was white.
(ii) But they were all similar in other way that they were all athletes who stood against racial discrimination.
Question 21. What did the African-American athletes do in order to draw international attention to “black poverty” in the Mexico Olympics.
What were the blackgloved and raised clenched fists meant to? Why did athletes do so?
What problem was raised by Smith and Carlos of the USA? With what gesture did they draw international attention towards the social problems in the USA?
How did the African-American athletes in Mexico Olympics 1968 try to draw international attention to racial discrimination in the United States?
What did the African-American athletes in Mexico Olympics do in order to draw international attention to racial discrimination in the United States?
Answer : To draw international attention to racial discrimination in the United States, the African-American athletes performed following activities:
(i) They received their medals wearing black socks and no shoes to represent Black poverty.
(ii) When American National Anthem was played, these two African-American athletes stood with clenched fists upraised and heads bowed.
(iii) The black-gloved and raised clenched fists were meant to symbolise Black power.
(iv) Peter wore a human rights badge on his shirt to show his support. (Any three).
Question 22. Who was the leader of the Civil Rights Movement? Describe the importance of this movement.
Explain briefly the Civil Rights Movement which took place in the USA. between 1954 and 1968.
Answer : Martin Luther King Junior was the leader of the Civil Rights Movement. This movement was started in 1954 and lasted till 1968.
Importance of Civil Rights Movement:
(i) It was a reform movement with the aim to abolish legal racial discrimination against African-Americans.
(ii) It practised non-violent methods of civil disobedience. Against racially discriminatory laws and practices.
Question 23. How do social division affect politics? Give two examples.
Explain with examples how social division affect politics?
How do social divisions affect politics? Explain.
Answer : Social divisions affect politics in both negative and positive ways:
(i) In Northern Ireland, there has been a violent and bitter ethno-political conflict for many years. Northern Ireland population was divided into Protestant (53%) and Roman Catholics (44%). The Catholics were represented by Nationalist parties who wanted to be unified with the Republic of Ireland. In contrast Protestants were represented by Unionists who wanted to remain with the UK. Hundreds of civilians, militants and security forces were killed in the fight between unionists and nationalists.
(ii) Disintegration of Yugoslavia into six independent countries due to ethnic and religious difference is another example.
(i) Every expression of social division in politics does not lead to disasters because wherever social divisions exist, they are reflected in politics. In many countries, there are parties that focus only on one community, e.g., DM.K., AIADMK and use in India.
Question 24. How is political expression of social division in democracy beneficial?
In a democracy, political expression of social division is very normal and can be healthy. Justify this statement with suitable arguments.
Answer : (i) Every expression of social division in politics does not lead to disasters but it is beneficial too.
(ii) The various disadvantaged groups express their grievances and get the government to attend the same.
(iii) Expression of various kinds of social divisions in politics often result in their cancelling one another out and thus reducing their intensity.
(iv) Fight against injustice often takes a democratic path voicing their demands in a peaceful and constitutional manner and seeking a fair position through elections.
Question 25. “Social divisions exist in most of the countries.” Explain.
Answer : Social division of one kind or the other exists in most of the countries.
(i) Social divisions exist whether the country is big or small. India is a vast country with many communities. Belgium is a small country with many communities.
(ii) Countries such as Germany and Sweden, that were once highly homogeneous are undergoing rapid change with influx of people from other parts of the world.
(iii) Migrants bring with them their own culture and tend to form a different social community. In this sense, most countries of the world are multicultural and as much have social division.
Question 26. What are the features of a homogeneous society? Mention the name of any one country having such society.
Answer : Features of a homogeneous society:
(i) A society has similar kinds of people.
(ii) There are no significant ethnic differences. Germany and Sweden have homogenous societies.
Question 27. “We have different identities in different contexts.” Support the statement with three facts.
Answer : We have different identities in different contexts. It can be proved by the following points:
(i) It is fairly common for people belonging to the same religions to feel that they do not belong to the same community because their caste is different.
(ii) It is also possible for people from different religions to have the same caste and feel close to each other.
(iii) Rich and poor persons from same family often do not keep close relations with each other for they feel they are different.
Question 28. What was the Black Power Movement? Explain.
Answer : (i) The Black Power Movement was emerged in the USA between 1966 and lasted till 1975.
(ii) It was more militant anti-racist movement.
(iii) Main aim of this movement was to end racism in the US.
5 Mark Questions
Question 29. Politics and social divisions must not be allowed to mix. Substantiate this statement with five arguments.
Answer : (i) Democracy involves competition among various political parties. Their competition tends to divide any society. If they start competing in terms of some existing social divisions, it can make social division into political division and lead to conflict, violence or even disintegration of a country.
(ii) Hundreds of civilians, militants and security forces were killed in the fight between Unionists and Nationalists and between the security forces of the UK and the Nationalists. It was only in 1998, that the UK government and the Nationalists reached a peace treaty after which the nationalists suspended their armed struggle.
(iii) Political competition along religious and ethnic lines led to the disintegration of Yugoslavia into six independent countries. ‘
(iv) In a democracy, it is only natural that political parties would talk about the social divisions, make different promises to different communities, look after due representation of various communities and make policies to redress the grievances of the disadvantaged communities.
(v) Social divisions affect voting in most countries. People from one community tend to prefer some party to others. In many countries, there are parties that focus only on one community.
Question 30. Identify the determinants of the outcomes of the politics of social division and explain them.
Answer : The three determinants of the outcomes of the politics of social division:
(i) People’s perception: If people view their identities to be exclusive and superior, it becomes difficult to accommodate them.
(ii) Role of community and culture: It depends upon how political leaders raise demands on behalf of a community. It is easier to accommodate demands that are within the constitutional framework and are not at the cost of another community.
(iii) The role of political party and government: Reaction of the government to the demands of different communities also determines the outcome. If the rulers are willing to share power and accommodate the reasonable demands of a minority community, social divisions become less threatening for the country.
Question 31. Do you think that social divisions are always dangerous? Explain.
Answer : No, we do not think that social divisions are always dangerous because:
(i) In a democracy, political expression of social divisions is normal and can be healthy.
(ii) It allows various disadvantaged and marginal social groups to express their grievances and get the government to attend to these.
(iii) Expression of various kinds of social division in politics often results in their cancelling one another out.