Ecology and Ecological Factors (Multiple Choice Questions and Answers)

Ecology and Ecological Factors

Multiple Choice Questions and Answers

1. The study of interactions between living organisms and environment is called

(a) ecosystem

(b) phytogeography

(c) ecology

(d) phytosociology

Answer: (c) ecology

2. The major source of water for the soil is

(a) groundwater

(b) capillary water

(c) precipitation

(d) combined water

Answer: (c) precipitation

3. The science dealing with soil is called

(a) pedology

(b) aerology

(c) geology

(d) palaeontology

Answer: (a) pedology

4. The soil which cracks and shrinks most as it dries is

(a) chalky soil

(b) clay soil

(c) sandy soil

(d) soil rich in minerals

Answer: (b) clay soil

5. Soil particles arranged in order of increasing size are

(a) sand-silt-clay

(b) clay-sand-silt

(c) silt-clay-sand

(d) clay-silt-sand

Answer: (d) clay-silt-sand

6. Soil that is of made up of particles that have been carried in water and then deposited, is called

(a) subsoil

(b) clay

(c) silt

(d) loam

Answer: (c) silt

7. Plants absorb from the soil

(a) hygroscopic water

(b) capillary water

(c) gravitational water

(d) both hygroscopic and gravitational water

Answer: (b) capillary water

8. Storage capacity of a soil is the extent to which it can hold

(a) gravitational water

(b) capillary water

(c) hygroscopic water

(d) capillary water plus hygroscopic water

Answer: (b) capillary water

9. Which one of the following factors is biotic?

(a) photoperiod

(b) CO2 content of the soil

(c) texture and porosity of soil

(d) rainfall

Answer: (b) CO2 content of the soil

10. Solubility and availability of plant nutrients related to

(a) soil pH

(b) soil porosity

(c) soil temperature

(d) soil colour

Answer: (a) soil pH

11. Which is the characteristic feature of a physiological dry soil?

(a) there is plenty of water in the soil

(b) light available to the plant is not sufficient

(c) soil is stony

(d) concentration of salt is very high in soil water

Answer: (d) concentration of salt is very high in soil water

12. The grazing animals can change the type of vegetation by

(a) bringing in plant pathogens

(b) selective grazing

(c) cross pollination

(d) bringing the seeds for other plants

Answer: (b) selective grazing

13. The term biosphere is used for the zone of earth where life exists

(a) on the lithosphere surface

(b) in the hydrosphere

(c) in the lithosphere and hydrosphere

(d) in the lithosphere hydrosphere and atmosphere

Answer: (d) in the lithosphere hydrosphere and atmosphere

14. Where do the tropical rain forests occur?

(a) Jammu and Kashmir

(b) Himachal Pradesh

(c) Bihar

(d) Andamans

Answer: (d) Andamans

15. The branch of science that deals with the development of forest and utilisation of forest products is

(a) horticulture

(b) silviculture

(c) sericulture

(d) pharmacognosy

Answer: (b) silviculture

16. In India coniferous forests are found in

(a) Madhya Pradesh

(b) Himalayan region

(c) Satpura Hills

(d) Rajasthan

Answer: (b) Himalayan region

17. Xerophytes have long roots

(a) to give mechanical support

(b) due to light

(c) to draw water from deep water beds

(d) none of the above

Answer: (c) to draw water from deep water beds

18. Soil salinity is measured by

(a) porometer

(b) photometer

(c) conductivity meter

(d) calorimeter

Answer: (c) conductivity meter

19. The factor governing the structure of earth surface is

(a) topographic

(b) edaphic

(c) biotic

(d) temperature

Answer: (a) topographic

20. What is the main causative factor of desertification?

(a) developmental activities

(b) tourism

(c) overgrazing

(d) irrigated agriculture

Answer: (c) overgrazing

21. Prickly pear (Argemone mexicana) is an ecological indicator of

(a) iron rich soil

(b) poorly drained soil

(c) nitrate rich soil

(d) recently flooded soil

Answer: (d) recently flooded soil

22. Plants which can withstand wide range of temperature are called

(a) stenothermic

(b) monothermic

(c) mesothermic

(d) eurythermic

Answer: (d) eurythermic

23. Ephemerals are

(a) drought enduring plants

(b) drought resistant plants

(c) drought escaping plants

(d) drought evading plants

Answer: (c) drought escaping plants

24. Plants which can survive in narrow range of temperature are

(a) helikothermic

(b) euthermic

(c) hypothermic

(d) stenothermic

Answer: (d) stenothermic

25. Halophytes grow on physiological dry soil due to the presence of

(a) excess salt in water

(b) excessive salt in plants

(c) excessive humidity in the air

(d) low water requirement

Answer: (b) excessive salt in plants

26. Halophytes are peculiar in having

(a) pneumatophoric stem

(b) velamen tissue

(c) vivipary

(d) saline water

Answer: (c) vivipary

27. A man made ecological factor is

(a) ploughing

(b) farming

(c) grazing

(d) fire

Answer: (d) fire

28. In India, coniferous forests are found in

(a) Himalayas

(b) Western ghats

(c) Eastern ghats

(d) All the above

Answer: (a) Himalayas

29. Grassland with scattered trees is

(a) evergreen forest

(b) deciduous forest

(c) savannah

(d) tropical rainforest

Answer: (c) savannah

30. Plants growing in shade are

(a) sciophytes

(b) xerophytes

(c) mesophytes

(d) heliophytes

Answer: (a) sciophytes

31. Heliophytes are plant growing in

(a) saline soil

(b) shade

(c) extreme dry condition

(d) full sunlight

Answer: (d) full sunlight

32. Study of interrelationships between environment and a community is known as

(a) synecology

(b) autecology

(c) phytoecology

(d) ecosystem

Answer: (a) synecology

33. A habitat with long severe winter and growing season restricted to a few months of summer forms

(a) Savannah

(b) Taiga

(c) Grasslands

(d) Tundra ecosystem

Answer: (d) Tundra ecosystem

34. In desert grassland which type of animals are relatively more abundant?

(a) aquatic

(b) fossorial

(c) arboreal

(d) diurnal

Answer: (b) fossorial

35. Study of relationship between communities and environment is called

(a) autecology

(b) synecology

(c) ecology

(d) ethnology

Answer: (b) synecology

36. Ecologically fixed and genetically irreversed species are called

(a) ecotone

(b) ecological equivalents

(c) ecotype

(d) none of these

Answer: (c) ecotype

37. Physical and chemical conditions of soil are studied under

(a) biotic factors

(b) edaphic factors

(c) climatic factors

(d) topographic factors

Answer: (b) edaphic factors

38. Plant decomposers are

(a) monera and fungi

(b) fungi and plants

(c) protista and animalia

(d) animalia and monera

Answer: (a) monera and fungi

39. What is the best pH of the soil for cultivation of plants?

(a) 3.4 -5.4

(b) 6.5 – 7.5

(c) 4.5 – 8.5

(d) 5.5 – 6.5

Answer: (b) 6.5 – 7.5

40. A plant species having different areas of geographical distribution is are called

(a) allopatric

(b) sympatric

(c) allelomorphs

(d) phytogeographic

Answer: (a) allopatric

41. Which of the following is important for specification?

(a) seasonal isolation

(b) reproductive isolation

(c) behavioral isolation

(d) tropical isolation

Answer: (b) reproductive isolation

42. What is true for individuals of same species?

(a) live in same niche

(b) live in same habitat

(c) interbreeding

(d) live in different habitats

Answer: (c) interbreeding

43. Species can be defined as

(a) group of individuals in an area

(b) population of interbreeding individuals

(c) individuals of a community

(d) organisms occupying the same habitat

Answer: (b) population of interbreeding individuals

44. The lowermost layer of atmosphere in which man and other living organisms exist, is called

(a) thermosphere

(b) troposphere

(c) stratosphere

(d) mesosphere

Answer: (b) troposphere

45. The term ecology was coined by

(a) Reiter

(b) Tansley

(c) E Munch

(d) Odum

Answer: (a) Reiter

46. Functional aspects of a species with reference to its place of occurrence is

(a) Ecology

(b) Ecological niche

(c) Species

(d) Environment

Answer: (b) Ecological niche

47. Dominant producers of neritic zone of sea are

(a) phytoplankton

(b) zooplankton

(c) microorganism

(d) diatoms

Answer: (a) phytoplankton

48. Ozone layer occurs in

(a) mesosphere

(b) thermosphere

(c) stratosphere

(d) troposphere

Answer: (c) stratosphere

 49.  Aerenchyma occurs in

(a) epiphytes

(b) halophytes

(c) hydrophytes

(d) xerophytes

Answer: (c) hydrophytes

 50. Geographic limit within which a population exists is called

(a) biome

(b) ecosystem

(c) niche

(d) habitat

Answer: (d) habitat