1 Mark Questions
Answer : Lines are the distance between two dots. Curved lines follow the contours of the body and are generally found in necklines, collars, yokes, body skirts, sleeves, hems, etc. Curved lines create a soft effect.
Answer : Blue, green and purple are colours which give an effect of coolness. Colours with a predominance of red, yellow and orange give an effect of warmth.
Answer : The different types of textures in clothes with examples are:
(i) Coarse and thick (Worsted)
(ii) Hard and stiff (Taffeta)
(iii) Fine, glossy, shiny (Satin, Chiffon)
(iv) Medium and soft (Cotton)
(v) Rough and Dull (Denim, Canvas)
(vi) Delicate and Transparent
(vii) Smooth and Shiny (silk)
Answer : Different types of balance are formal balance and informal balance.
Answer : To create an emphasis in any part of a dress, buttons, belts, laces, etc of dark colours may be used.
2 Marks Questions
Answer : Dress of a six year old child can be made comfortable through following ways:
(i) Clothes for children should be light and soft.
(ii) Mostly cotton material is suitable for their clothes.
(iii) The outfits should have double seams so that they do not stretch and tear easily.
(iv) Fabric should be easy to wash and wrinkle resistant.
Answer : The elements of design can be used in designing the sari and blouse for a woman who has fat arms in the following ways:
Lines The sari should be with vertical stripes so that the woman looks taller and thinner.
Colour The colour of the sari and blouse should be either blue, as cool hues minimise the apparent body size and shape.
Shape The blouse should have small prints, as these give a slenderising effect, making the arms of the woman appear thinner.
Texture The texture of the sari and blouse should be fine and smooth to make the woman appear thinner. Thus these clothes should be made of linen, crepe silk or satin.
Answer : The two ways are:
(i) Rhythm can be checked by repetition of various patterns in both the skirt and shirt, gradation in sizes of motifs, buttons, lines, colours etc in the shirt, and radiation in gatherers and darts and parallelism, in knife pleats in the skirt.
(ii) Emphasis can be checked through repetition or contrasting colour s of both the skirt and shirt, unusual lines and shapes in the shirt collar, pocket, buttons, etc, placement of decorations on the shirt, and gradation of colours in the shirt.
Answer : The four elements of design are line, shape, texture and colour. These are used in designing the salwar kameez for a woman in the following ways:
Line The kameez should be with vertical stripes so that the woman looks taller and thinner. No curved line pattern should be there, as curved lines make the body appear fuller.
Colour If the colour of the salwar and kameez are same, they should be either green or blue, as cool hues minimise the apparent body size and shape.
Shape The kameez may have small prints, as these give a slenderising effect, making the woman appear thinner.
Texture The texture of the salwar and kameez should be fine and smooth to make the woman appear thinner. Thus, these clothes should be made of linen, crepe silk or satin.
Answer : The two ways are:
(i) Harmony can be checked in the shirt by the hem length of the sleeves being the same as the bottom hem of the shirt. Harmony is also seen if the style lines in both the pant and shirt should be similar in nature and matching on both sides (left and right).
(ii) Emphasis can be checked through repetition or contrasting colours of both pant and shirt, unusual lines and shapes in the shirt collar, pocket, buttons, etc, placement of decorations on the shirt, and gradation of colours in the shirt.
Answer : The two ways are:
(i) Harmony can be checked in the kameez by the hem length of the sleeves being the same as the bottom hem of the garment. Harmony is also seen if the style liners in both the salwar and kameez are matching. If there are any prints on the kameez, the prints should be aligned on both sides of the dress.
(ii) Balance can be checked if the kameez has equal elements on both sides of an imaginary vertical centre line. These may be motifs, patterns or prints. The salwar can have gathers radiating from a central focal point to give radial balance.
Answer : Rhythm in a sari and a blouse can be created by:
(i) Repetition of various patterns in both the sari and blouse.
(ii) Gradation in sizes of motifs, buttons, lines, colours etc in the blouse.
Answer : Emphasis in a dress for an adolescent girl can be brought about by using the following:
(i) Placement of decorations like embroidery, motif/ patch work, frills/ buttons and broaches.
(ii) Unique style, colours, lines and shapes.
Answer : The reasons are:
(i) Fat persons look thinner when wearing dresses with vertical lines, as these lines create an illusion of height.
(ii) Thin persons look fatter if they wear dresses with horizontal lines, as these lines create an illusion of breadth.
Answer : Sudha can keep the following points in her mind:
(i) The suit should not be sleeveless, as then it will attract attention towards her fat arms.
(ii) Embroidery along the button line will shift attention from the arms.
(iii) Sleeves should be stitched without lining.
(iv) It can be a straight cut or umbrella cut suit to shift attention.
(v) Fabric should be soft and with small prints.
Answer : The two effects of horizontal lines in a garment are as follows:
(i) Horizontal lines give an appearance of breadth, so they should be avoided by short or fat people.
(ii) These lines make a tall person look short.
Answer : The effect of zigzag lines in a garment on the appearance of a person are:
(i) If the zigzag is more vertical, i.e. with steep sides, the person looks thinner than he actually is.
(ii) If the zigzag is more horizontal,i.e. with gradual rise and fall, the person looks broader than he actually is.
Answer : Colour in clothing can help in the following ways to disguise figure flaws:
(i) Dark or dull colours make broad/ fat people appear slimmer.
(ii) Bright and light colours make the height and size of a figure appear more.
(iii) One colour dress is effective for a short person, as it will make him look taller.
(iv) Contrasting colours can help a skinny and very tall person to look fatter and shorter.
Answer : Four advantages of using silk fabric for making clothes are as follows:
(i) It gives an aura of elegance.
(ii) Silk fabric has its own subtle shine and provides the right drape.
(iii) Silk fabric resists wrinkles and creases much better than other fabrics.
(iv) It is affordable now.
3 Marks Questions
Answer : Ranjana should take care of all those features of a dress which make her appear more perfect in her physique. These features are:
(i) Selecting contrasting colours and light tints to give an appearance of breadth.
(ii) Selecting garments with horizontal lines, as these add fullness to the body.
(iii) Selecting dresses with large prints or checks, as these will make her appear broader.
Answer : The following points on colour and design should be kept in mind for selecting a shirt for a short and plump teenager:
(i) The shirt should have thin vertical stripes to make the teenager appear tall and thin. Small checks or small prints may also be used.
(ii) Cool colours like green or blue should be used to minimise the appearance body size.
(iii) Fine and clingy fabric like linen, crepe silk and satin should be the shirt’s material to project an appearance of slimness.
4 Marks Questions
Answer : Clever use of the following principles can help make fat woman with heavy arms appear slimmer:
Line A dress having a vertical line pattern should be worn. Also, an ‘A-line’ dress, i.e. one that is fitted at the shoulders or hips and gradually widens towards the hem, giving the impression of the shape of a capital letter A, will give the appearance of slimness.
Shape Small prints will make a fat person appear thin. This is formed with the combination of lines. Outline or silhouette of a dress can be seen from a distance. Women’s apparel is usually designed as straight, tubular or bell shaped.
Colours There are infinite colours and every colour plays an important role. Colours may give peace, pleasure or sadness to the mind. Some colours are cheerful while others have a sobering effect. Each colour gives a unique effect to the figure and personality of a person. Dark and cool colours and combination colours will make the fire appear slim.
Emphasis By shifting emphasis away from the arms and waist towards the hem and neckline will make the figure appear slim.
Answer : Line Horizontal lines make the person appear short.
Shape Large prints make a person look shorter.
Colours It will make a person look short like red blouse with green sari, or white and black in salwar suit.
Rhythm Gradation, radiation, puff sleeves with pleats and gathers will make a person look short and healthy. Pleats can be added.
Answer : Methods of creating emphasis in a dress of a skirt and a top are:
Repetition Both the skirt and top can have similar colours, lines, shapes or textures.
Unusual Lines, Shapes and Textures Collars, buttons and pockets in the top can have unusual shapes to lay emphasis on them.
Contrasting Colours We can use contrasting colour skirt and top to emphasise the point where they meet, i.e. the waist.
Placement of Decorations Neckline or cuffs of the top may be decorated with embroidery, lace, buttons, etc, to emphasise them.
Methods of creating rhythm in a dress of a skirt and a top are:
Repetition Having similar embroidery, lace, piping, etc, in the hemline of the skirt, the neckline and sleeves of the top will bring rhythm to the dress.
Gradation In the top as well as the skirt, gradually increasing or decreasing the size of the motifs, buttons and lines in an orderly sequence will bring the rhythm to the dress.
Radiation Gathers in the waist of the skirt, the yoke and puff sleeves in the tip will bring rhythm to the dress.
Parallelism Knife pleats in the skirt tucks in the yoke and parallel bands of colour of the top will bring rhythm to the dress.
5 Marks Questions
Answer : Usha can use the principles of design in the following manner for designing a sari and blouse for a working woman.
Balance Formal balance can be achieved when structures and use of accessories are identical on both sides of the dress. This can be achieved in the blouse, as shown in the illustration below.
Proportion This is the relationship of parts of a dress to one another and to the whole dress. This is based on the proportion of the golden mean which is represented by ratios like 3:5:8, 5:8:13 and so on. In this case, the ratio of the length of the blouse to that of the saree may be 3:5.
Rhythm This can be achieved by repetition, gradation, radiation, parallelism or alternation. For instance, alternating red and green pleats in the saree will make the eyes travel smoothly from one part of the sari to another.
Emphasis The centre of attraction in a dress is called the point of emphasis. In this case, it can be the neck of the blouse, where a continuing change in intensity from bright to dull, or from light to dark, can be made, as shown in the illustration below.
Harmony This is possible when all elements of the design i.e. lines, colours, form or shape and texture are related, consistent and in a sequence or order. For instance, both the sari and blouse can be made of silk.
Answer : When we decide the colours of clothes to be worn by various people, we take the following factors into consideration:
Season and Time of Day Light and cool colours (blue or green) should be worn in summer,while dark and warm colours(red or yellow) should be worn in winter. Light coloured clothes should be worn during daytime while dark coloured clothes should be worn at night.
Wearer’s Age/Gender Children should wear bright coloured clothes,whereas elderly people sober and dull coloured clothes. Women can wear clothes of all colours, but men should wear only sober coloured clothes.
Body Size and Shape Warm coloured clothes increase the size of the person wearing them,so they should avoided by big and fat persons. Cool colours will make such persons appear less bulky.
Complexion and Colour of Hair and eyes On a fair complexion,dark,cool and sober coloured clothes should be worn.
Occasion /Personality/Fashion These factors are necessary for selecting the colours of the clothes worn.For instance, only sober coloured clothes should be worn by all persons at funeral , but brightly coloured clothes can be worn by all persons attending a birthday party. Colours of clothes worn also reflect the wearer’s personality. Colours in fashion for a particular category of person can also be worn.
Answer : The factors Aradhana should consider while deciding clothes to be worn during summer are:
Lines/Pattern in Kameez,Shirt and top These should have horizontal lines or big prints to be create an illusion of width.
Colour If the salwar is of light colour,the kameez should be of dark colour. Contrasting colours tend to give a thin person the appearance of fullness.
Texture Dresses should be of denim, corduroy or other coarse and stiff fabric to make the person broader.
Frill/Lace/Piping/Border A girl will look fatter if her dress have frills,lace piping or a border in them
Puffed Sleeves The kameez,shirt or top should have puffed sleeves to make a thin girl appear broader.