Gene Cloning and Human Genome Project (Multiple Choice Questions and Answers)

Gene Cloning and Human Genome Project

Multiple Choice Questions and Answers

1. Gene cloning is a process where

(a) gene is cloned in an animal

(b) fragments of DNA are transferred from one organism to another, usually carried on a DNA vector

(c) fragments of DNA cloned in the same organism using carrier

(d) DNA is cloned in plants

Answer: (c) fragments of DNA cloned in the same organism using carrier

2. Enzyme that cleaves nucleic acids within the polynucleotide chain is known as

(a) exonuclease

(b) sulphate

(c) endonuclease

(d) phosphotriesterase

Answer: (c) endonuclease

3. A single strand of nucleic acid tagged with a radioactive molecule is called

(a) vector

(b) selectable marker

(c) plasmid

(d) probe

Answer: (d) probe

4. For transformation, microparticles coated with DNA to be bombarded with gene gun are made up of

(a) silver or platinum

(b) platinum or zinc

(c) gold or tungsten

(d) none

Answer: (c) gold or tungsten

5. The usual source of restriction endonucleases used in gene cloning is

(a) fungi

(b) bacteria

(c) plants

(d) viruses

Answer: (b) bacteria

6. Bolistics (gene gun) is suitable for

(a) disarming pathogen vectors

(b) transformation of plant cells

(c) constructing recombinant DNA by joining with vectors

(d) DNA fingerprinting

Answer: (b) transformation of plant cells

7. In genetic engineering, the antibiotics are used

(a) as selectable markers

(b) to select healthy vectors

(c) as sequences from where replication starts

(d) to keep the cultures free of infection

Answer: (a) as selectable markers

 8. In a genetic engineering experiment, restriction enzymes can be used for

(a) bacterial DNA only

(b) viral DNA only

(c) any DNA fragment

(d) Eukaryotic DNA only

Answer: (c) any DNA fragment

 9. Which of the following is used to select genes of interest from a genomic library?

(a) restriction enzymes

(b) cloning vectors

(c) gene targets

(d) DNA probes

Answer: (d) DNA probes

 10. The enzymes which are absolutely necessary for recombinant DNA technology are

(a) restriction endonucleases and top isomerases

(b) endonucleases and polymerases

(c) restriction endonucleases and ligases

(d) peptidases and ligases

Answer: (c) restriction endonucleases and ligases

11. Which of the following is a plasmid?

(a) pBR322

(b) Bam HI

(c) Sal I

(d) Eco RI

Answer: (a) pBR322

 12. Which of the following are used in gene cloning?

(a) lomasomes

(b) mesosomes

(c) plasmids

(d) nucleoids

Answer: (c) plasmids

 13. The technique used for separating molecules by passing electric current is

(a) fractionation

(b) centrifugation

(c) electrophoresis


Answer: (c) electrophoresis

14. Lysozyme that is present in perspiration, saliva and tears get destroyed in

(a) fractionation

(b) centrifugation

(c) electrophoresis


Answer: (b) centrifugation

 15. The linking of antibiotic resistance gene with the plasmid vector is possible because of

(a) DNA polymerases

(b) exonucleases

(c) DNA ligase

(d) endonucleases

Answer: (c) DNA ligase

16. Which one among the following is just the cloning plasmid not an expression plasmid?

(a) pBAD-18-cam

(b) pBCSK

(c) pUC-18

(d) pET

Answer: (c) pUC-18

 17. Bacteria protect themselves from viruses by fragmenting viral DNA upon entry with

(a) exonuclease

(b) gyrase

(c) endonuclease

(d) ligase

Answer: (c) endonuclease

18. The construction of the first recombinant DNA was done by using the native plasmid of

(a) Escherichia coli

(b) Salmonella typhimurium

(c) B.thuringiensis

(d) Agrobacterium

Answer: (b) Salmonella typhimurium

 19. Restriction endonuclease

(a) cuts the DNA molecule at specific sites

(b) restricts the synthesis of DNA inside the nucleus

(c) restricts the synthesis of DNA outside the nucleus

(d) synthesizes DNA

Answer: (a) cuts the DNA molecule at specific sites

20.  Molecular scissor is

(a) peptidase

(b) urease

(c) restriction endonuclease

(d) helicase

Answer: (c) restriction endonuclease

 21.  Polymerase chain reaction technology (PCR) is used for

(a) DNA identification

(b) DNA amplification

(c) DNA repair

(d) cleaving DNA

Answer: (b) DNA amplification

 22. Biotechnology involves the application of biological

(a) organisms

(b) systems

(c) processes

(d) all of the above

Answer: (d) all of the above

23. Fermentation products like south Indian foods are the result of

(a) old biotechnology

(b) new biotechnology

(c) recombinant DNA

(d) genetic engineering

Answer: (a) old biotechnology

24. Desired characters can be introduced into an organism using

(a) sexual reproduction

(b) plant breeding methods

(c) Recombinant DNA technology

(d) microprojection

Answer: (c) Recombinant DNA technology

25. The bands obtained by gel electrophoresis during DNA separation are stained with

(a) methyl blue

(b) potassium chlorate

(c) ethidium bromide

(d) chloral hydrate

Answer: (c) ethidium bromide

26. The enzyme used to remove the phosphate group from 5′ hydroxyl group is

(a) Restriction endonuclease

(b) DNA ligase

(c) DNA polymerases

(d) Alkaline phosphatase

Answer: (d) Alkaline phosphatase

27. Which of the following can be used as selectable marker?

(a) Z gene of lac operon

(b) gene of Agrobacterium

(c) Ori sequence

(d) none of these

Answer: (a) Z gene of lac operon

28. The letters pBR of pBR 322 stands for

(a) plasmid, bacterium

(b) plasmid bacteriophage

(c) plasmid, Boliver and Rodriguez

(d) none

Answer: (c) plasmid, Boliver and Rodriguez

29. BAC vector is preferred because it contains

(a) F factor

(b) selectable marker

(c) cloning sites

(d) all of these

Answer: (d) all of these

30. Yeasts are very suitable as host cell because these are

(a) simplest eukaryotic organisms

(b) unicellular prokaryotes

(c) can reproduce sexually

(d) none of these

Answer: (a) simplest eukaryotic organisms

31. Bacterial cell wall is effectively removed by

(a) cellulose

(b) liposomes

(c) lysozymes

(d) pectinase

Answer: (c) lysozymes

32. Escherichia coli cells are made competent to observe external DNA by

(a) giving the high-temperature

(b) suspending them in cold calcium chloride

(c) treating the cells with sodium chloride

(d) growing them in culture

Answer: (b) suspending them in cold calcium chloride

33. A process where calcium ions help in DNA transfer is called

(a) transduction

(b) transfection

(c) transformation

(d) transition

Answer: (b) transfection

34. The fact that the cloned DNA fragment disturbs the coding sequence of the gene is known as

(a) stimulation

(b) inhibition

(c) insertional inactivation

(d) non-recombinant

Answer: (c) insertional inactivation

35. The inserted genes generally express themselves as

(a) enzymes

(b) proteins

(c) inorganic compounds

(d) carbohydrates

Answer: (b) proteins

36. Restriction enzymes are used in genetic engineering because they

(a) can cut DNA at specific base sequence

(b) are proteolytic enzymes which can degrade harmful proteins

(c) are nucleases that cut DNA at variable sites

(d) can join different DNA fragments

Answer: (a) can cut DNA at specific base sequence

37. In genetic engineering an enzyme used is

(a) topoisomerases

(b) ligase

(c) restriction endonuclease

(d) replicase

Answer: (c) restriction endonuclease

38. Combining the DNA’s of two species into a single DNA molecule is called

(a) genetic recombination

(b) Recombinant DNA techniques

(c) crossing over

(d) gene amplification

Answer: (b) Recombinant DNA techniques

39. Which of the following is not the cloning vector?

(a) Agrobacterium

(b) Yeast

(c) Neurospora

(d) Bacteriophage

Answer: (c) Neurospora

40. DNA can be separated by

(a) gel electrophoresis

(b) autoradiography

(c) x-ray crystallography

(d) centrifugation

Answer: (a) gel electrophoresis

41. Restriction endonucleases are utilised in genetic engineering for

(a) molecular degradation to DNA break up

(b) molecular build up of nucleotides

(c) molecular scalpels for cutting DNA specific sites

(d) molecular cement for combining DNA pieces into long chains

Answer: (c) molecular scalpels for cutting DNA specific sites

42. Plasmids are used in genetic engineering because they

(a) are easily available

(b) can replicate

(c) can integrate with host chromosomes

(d) are inert

Answer: (c) can integrate with host chromosomes

43. Which of the following is a commonly used bacterium in plant genetic engineering?

(a) Salmonella typhi

(b) Bacillus subtilis

(c) Corynebacterium

(d) Agrobacterium

Answer: (d) Agrobacterium

44. One of the following bacterium is a good vector in genetic engineering?

(a) Bacillus thuringiensis

(b) Agrobacterium tumefaciens

(c) Salmonella typhi

(d) None

Answer: (b) Agrobacterium tumefaciens

45. Which of the following enzymes is used to join bits of DNA?

(a) ligase

(b) primase

(c) DNA polymerase

(d) endonuclease

Answer: (a) ligase

46. Construction of recombinant DNA involves

(a) cleaving DNA segments with ligase and rejoining them with endonuclease

(b) cleaving and rejoining DNA segments with ligase alone

(c) cleaving and rejoining DNA segments with ennuclease alone

(d) cleaving DNA segments with endonuclease and rejoining them with ligase

Answer: (d) cleaving DNA segments with endonuclease and rejoining them with ligase

47. The sites of DNA where restriction enzymes act are generally

(a) pallindromic

(b) tandem repeats

(c) CG rich region

(d) TATA boxes

Answer: (a) pallindromic

 48. Which of the following is necessary to make accurate copies of vector DNA?

(a) RNA polymerase

(b) DNA polymerase

(c) DNA ligase

(d) Endonucleases

Answer: (b) DNA polymerase

 49. What is the name of the site where foreign DNA can be inserted in plasmid of Agrobacterium?

(a) t-RNA

(b) c-DNA

(c) T-DNA

(d) B-DNA

Answer: (c) T-DNA

 50.  A method used to insert DNA molecules into the cells by using short electrical impulses is known as

(a) biolistics

(b) microinjection

(c) liposomes

(d) electroporation

Answer: (d) electroporation