Globalization Notes Class 12 CBSE

Concept of Globalisation

(i) Globalisation means the flows of ideas, capital, commodities and people across different parts of the world. It is a multidimensional concept. It has political, economic and cultural manifestations and these must be adequately distinguished.

(ii) Globalisation need not always be positive. It can have negative consequences for the peole.

(iii) As a concept, globalisation fundamentally deals with flows. These flows can be ideas moving from one part of the world to another, commodities being traded across borders and so on.

(iv) The crucial element is the worldwide inter connectedness which is created and sustained as a consequence of these constant flows.

Causes of Globalisation

(i) One important aspect of globalisation is that even though it is not caused by any single factor, technology remains a critical element.

(ii) The ability of ideas, capital, commodities and people to move more easily from one part of the world to another has been made possible by technological advances.

(iii) Interconnectedness is also an important aspect of globalization. Any event taking place in one part of the world could have an impact on another part of the world.

Consequences of Globalisation

Political Consequences

(i) Globalisation resutls in an erosion of state capital i.e. by reducing the ability of government to do what they want to do.

(ii) It gives way to a more minimalist state that perform certain core functions such as the maintenance of law and order, and the security of its citizens.

(iii) In pace of the state the market becomes the prime determinant of economic and social priorities.

(iv) Globalisation does not always reduce state capacity. The primacy of the state continues to be unchallenged basis of political community.

(v) State capacity has received boost as a consequence of globalisation, with enhanced technologies available at the disposal of the state to collect information about its citizens.

Economic Consequences

(i) In order to understand economic consequences of globalisation it is important to know that in economic globalisation involves many actors other than IMF, WTO.

(ii) It involves greater economic flows among different countries of the world. Some of this is voluntary and some forced by international institutions and powerful countries.

(iii) Globalisation has involved greater trade in commodities across the globe as it has reduced the imposing the restrictions on the imports of one country on another.

(iv) Economic globalisation has created an intense division of opinion all over the world.

(v) According to some, economic globalisation is likely to benefit only a small section of the population.

(vi) On the other hand advocates of economic globalisation argue that it generates greater economic growth and well-being for larger sections of the population.

Cultural Consequences

(i) The consequences of globalisation can also be seen on our culture too and thus it is not confirmed only to the sphere of politics and economy.

(ii) The process cultural globalisatino poses a threat because it leads to the rise of a uniform culture or what is called cultural homogenization.

(iii) Cultural globalization has both positive as well as negative effect on the world.

(iv) While cultural homogenization is an aspect of globalization, the same process also generates precisely the opposite effect.

India and Globalisation

(i) Flows pertaining to the movement of capital, commodities, ideals and people go back several centuries in Indian history.

(ii) During the British rule, India became an exporter of primary goods and raw materials and a consumer (importer) of finished goods.

(iii) After independence, India decided to be a self-sufficient country rather than being dependent on others.

(iv) In 1991, India embarked on a programme of economic reforms that has sought increasingly to de-regulate various sectors including trade and foreign investment.

Resistance to Globalisation

(i) Globalisation has invited strong criticism all over the globe. For some globalization represents a particular phase of global capitalism that makes the rich richer and poor poorer.

(ii)  Culturally, they are worried that traditional culture will be harmed and people will lose their age-old values and ways.

(iii) It is important to note that anti-globalisation movements too participate in global networks, allying with those who feel like them in other countries.

(iv) The World Social Forum (WSF) is a global platform bringing together human rights activists, environmentalists, labour, youth and women activists opposed to neo-liberal globalization.

India and Resistance to Globalisation

(i) Resistance to globalization in India has come from different quarters.

(ii) There have been left wing protests to economic liberalisation voiced through political parties as well as through some forums.

(iii) Resistance to globalization has also come from the political right. This has taken the forum of objecting particularly to various cultural influences.