1 Mark Questions
Question 1 : Mention the main function of the World Trade Organisation (WTO).
Answer : The main functions of the World Trade Organisation (WTO) is setting the rules for the promotion of international trade.
Question 2 : How far is it correct to say that globalisation results in the erosion of state sovereignty?
Answer : The globalization affects the state sovereignty to some extent because the State Government have to follow the international decisions on various global issues.
Question 3 : How far it is correct to say that globalisation actually increases the activities of the state?
Answer : Globalization has actually increased the activities of the sate in political, economic and cultural fields.
Question 4 : What is globalization?
Answer : Globalisation means the flow of ideas , capital, commodities and people across different parts of the world. It is a multidimensional concept. It has political, economic and cultural manifestation and these must be adequately distinguished.
2 Mark Questions
Question 1 : Mention any tow benefits of globalization?
Answer : Two benefits of globalization are:
(i) It provides the job opportunities for the youth.
(ii) It provides the exchange of ideas, capital, commodities and people from one place to another.
Question 2 : Mention any two political consequences of globalization.
Answer : Following are the consequences of political globalization:
(i) It has eroded the capacity of the state by reducing the ability of government to do what they want to do.
(ii) The concept of welfare state has been reduced to a more minimalist state all over the world.
Question 3 : How has technological advancement affected globalization?
Answer : Technology remains an important factor with regard to globalization. The technological inventions such as telegraph, telephone and the microchip has revolutionized communication between various global factors. Hence, invention of printing laid basis for the creation of nationalism. Thus, technological advancement and recognition of interconnectedness affected globalisation.
Question 4 : What is cultural homogenisation? Give an example to show that its consequence is not negative.
Answer : Globalization which led to rise of a uniform culture known as cultural homogenisation. It is intermingling of one culture with another one. The consequences are not always negative as jaens can even go well with Khadi kurta. Now-a-days, Americans also wear jeans and kurta.
Question 5 : Does globalization lead to cultural homogenization or cultural heterogenisation or both? Justify.
Answer : Globalization has affected our domestic life, food, drink, dress and ideas. It has even affected people’s preferences leading to the fear to threatening world culture. This fear is true upto some extent as globalisation has led to rise of a uniform culture known as cultural homogenization.
On the other hand, cultural homogenization has contrary effects too. It makes to each culture more distinctive and unique. This process is called cultural heterogenization.
Question 6 : What are the economic consequences of globalization?
Answer : Following are the economic consequences of globalization:
(i) It deals with increasing the trade in commodities all around the world. The restrictions imposed by various states on each other’s imports have been removed.
(ii) Globalization benefits some sections of society while other sections of society are left deprived. Developed countries gain more as compared to developing countries.
Question 7 : Define cultural heterogenisation.
Answer : When globalization leads to each culture becoming more different and distinctive. It is called cultural heterogenization.
Question 8 : Mention any one problem created by protectionism.
Answer : Protectionism is practiced by states to protect the economic and business interest of domestic industries, companies, traders, etc. In long-term , protectionism weaken the industry as without competition there will be no innovation, efficiency which may result in lower quality and expensive production. This way domestic product can not compete with foreign product.
Question 9 : What is meant by flows in relation to globalization?
Answer : Flows in relation to globalization refer to movement of ideas, capital, commodity and people from one part to another parts of world, which causes the process of globalisation to exist.
Question 10 : What is meant by social safety nets?
Answer : Social safety nets refer to welfare measures implemented by states to provide social security to poor and weaker section of society who is at the receiving end of economic development.
4 Mark Questions
Question 1 : Explain any four economic consequences of globalization.
Answer : Political consequences : The political consequences can be understood through following points:
(i) It decreases the role of state. It leads to market state rather than welfare state.
(ii) It leads to the emergence of IME World Bank and WTO etc.
(iii) Market factors influences the decision-making process of the governments.
(iv) It has affected the traditional concept of state sovereignty.
Economic consequences : The economic consequences can be understood through following points:
(i) It focuses on the development of some elite groups of the society.
(ii) Economic globalisation enhances the disparities among the different classes of the society.
(iii) It also increases the role of WTO, World Bank and IME.
(iv) Economic globalisation leads to consumerism which enhances the market’s role in society.
Cultural consequences : The cultural consequences can be understood through following points:
(i) It leads to cultural dominance that is the dominance of Western culture.
(ii) It also leads towards the unification of the culture that is cultural homogenization.
(iii) Due to cultural homogenization cultural globalization leads towards cultural heterogenization.
(iv) It also leads to cultural colonialism.
Question 2 : Explain any two positive and any two negative effects of globalization.
Answer : Positive Impacts of globalization are (any two):
(i) Increase in the volume of trade in goods and services.
(ii) It attracts private foreign capital investment.
(iii) It raises standard of living.
(v) It increases production, efficiency and healthy competition.
(iv) It attracts foreign direct investment also.
Negative impacts of globalization are (any two):
(i) This foreign companies focus on their profit orientation projects only in place of social welfare.
(ii) It has widened income disparities by making the rich richer and the poor more poorer.
(iii) Globalization is also a reason for depletion of flora and fauna in country.
Question 3 : Explain four factors responsible for the development of globalization.
Answer : The factors responsible for globalization are:
(i) Globalization is not caused by a single factor. Now-a-days technology is the most important element. The invention of the telegraph, the telephone and the microchip has revolutionised communication between various global factors and hence, invention of printing laid the basis for the emergence of nationalism. The technology affects both our personal and collective lives.
(ii) The technology has made it easier to exchange ideas, capital , commodities and people from one place to another. The transfer of capital and commodities is likely to be wider and quicker, than the transfer of people across different parts of the world.
(iii) It is not just the availability of improved communication which led to the emergence of globalization, rather the role of people in different parts of the world is also significant who recognise these interconnections with the rest of the world.
(iv) The events taking place in one part of the world have an influence, on the other part of the world.
Here, we can take an example of bird flue or tsunami, which is not confined to only one nation. It has affected the world as whole. Similarly, any major economic event would have an immediate impact on the local, national or regional environment at the world level.
Question 4 : How has technology contributed to globalization? Explain.
Answer : Technology has contributed to globalisation in the following ways:
(i) The technological invention such a telegraph, telephone and the microchip has revolutionised communication between various global factors and hence invention of printing laid the basis for the emergence of nationalism. Thus, technology influences the way we think of our personal and collective lives.
(ii) The sharing of ideas, capital, commodities and people throughout the globe has been made possible only by technological advancement.
(iii) The transfer of capital goods and services is likely to be wider and quicker than the transfer of people across the various parts of the world.
(iv) Technological advances has reduced the physical distances and increased inter connectedness world widely.
Question 5 : Explain any four reasons due to which globalization is resisted.
Answer : The four reasons due to which globalization is resisted are:
(i) Leftist parties argue that contemporary globalization represents a global capitalism that makes the rich richer and the poor poorer.
(ii) Weakening of the state leads to a reduction in the capacity of the state reduction in the capacity of its poor.
(iii) Rightist parties express anxiety over the political economic and cultural effects.
(iv) The cultural globalisation would harm age old values of people while harming their traditional culture.
Question 6 : “Globalization has shifted power from nation-states to global consumers.” Justify the statement.
Answer : Globalization has shifted power from nation-states to global consumers because of the following points:
(i) Revolution in information technology and electronic media and development in the field of science and technology.
(ii) Collapse of communism and the end of cold war with the disintegration of Soviet Union.
(iii) Advances in the field of transport and communication and growth of MNCs. These MNCs are the efforts of the developed nations to make the whole world as one single market.
(iv) Rising debts of developing states that have forced the IMF and World Bank to ask developing states to adopt the path of disinvestment and globalisation.
Question 7 : Define globalisation. How is it different from internationalisation?
Answer : It is different from internationalisation on the basis of following points:
(i) Internationalization believes in the integrity of community whereas globalisation believes in one umbrella concepts and sharing of ideas between other states.
(ii) Internationalization believes in the use of resources of all the world equally for the benefit of mankind, but globalization empahasize on the development of resources for the welfare and support of community.
(iii) Internationalization also believes in the universal brotherhood and international peace whereas globalization believes in the concept of the flows of ideas, people and commodities throughout the globe, it also encourages the richer countries to support the poorer countries’ economy.
Question 8 : Define globalization. Is is a multi dimensional concept? Justify.
Answer : (Definition has been provided earlier).
Yes, it is a multi-dimensional concept because it has political, economic and cultural manifestations and these are very different to each other. It is wrong to say that globalization is purely economic concern and would be purely cultural phenomena. Globalization has, affected the globe unevenly. It is important to avoid drawing general conclusions about the impact of globalization.
6 Mark Questions
Question 1 : Describe any three effects of globalization on the culture of a country.
Answer : The effects of globalization on the culture of a country are:
(i) Cultural globalization affects our food, clothes and thinking. But some times external influence simply enlarge our choices and sometimes they modify our culture without overwhelming the traditional norms. e.g. the burger is no substitute for a masala dosa and therefore does not pose any real challenge.
(ii) In the same way the blue jeans can go well with a homespun khadi kurta. Here the outcome of outside influences is a new combination that is unique. This clothing combination has been exported back to the country that gave us blue jeans.
(iii) The culture of the politically and economically dominant society leaves it imprint on a less powerful society, and the world begins to look more like a dominant power wishes it to be.
(iv) This is dangerous not only for the poor countries but for the whole of humanity for it leads to the shrinking of the rich cultural heritage of the entire globe.
So we can say that globalization broadens our cultural outlook and promotes cultural homogenization.
Question 2 : Describe any three effects of globalization on the economy of a country.
Answer : Following are the three effects of globalization of the economy of a country:
(i) Economic globalisation gives more importance to institutions like the IMF and the WTO.
(ii) It involves greater economic flows among different countries of the world.
(iii) As the restrictions imposed by different countries have been reduced, so, greater trade in commodities across the globe can be seen.
(iv) It has led to the flow of ideas across national boundaries through internet and computer.
(v) Economic globalization has also brought economic ruin for the weaker countries, especially for the poor within these countries.
Question 3 : Explain any three benefits of globalization with examples.
Answer : The three benefits of globalization are as follows:
(i) Economic benefits
(a) It involves greater economic flows among various countries.
(b) It has enhanced trade in commodities among countries.
(c) The restriction on the imports and movement of capital have also been reduced.
(d) This has spread internet and computer related services across national boundaries.
(ii) Technological benefits
Technological equipments as telephone, internet, telegraph and microchip have contributed to globalization by exchanging ideas, capital and people to make convenient to move from one place to another at a fast pace under the process of globalisation.
(iii) Political Benefits
(a) The primary status remains unchallenged basis of political community.
(b) States have received a boost under globalisation to become more powerful and strong.
Question 4 : How has globalization impacted India and how is India impacting globalization?
Answer : Globalization affected India economically, socially and culturally. After adopting New Economic Policy in 1991, India has removed restrictions on imports of goods. It also encouraged the investors to invest in India. FDI to produce goods and services has increased, it also enhanced foreign exchange reserves.
After adopting globalization, USA and European culture spread in India. The food habit and dressing style in changing. Families are converting from joint to nuclear. Eating burgers and pizzas and wearing jeans have brought dramatic change in our lives.
In India, information technology and space technology have been enhanced after globalization. India is also involved in trade and commerce with other nations. Even though at some places India plays a leadership role. However, in India, resistance to globalization has come from various quarters. These are as follows:
(i) Trade unions of industrial workforce as well as social movements and farmer agitation against monopoly MNCs are also some forms of resistance to globalization.
(ii) The patenting of certain plants like Neem by American and European firms has also generated widespread opposition in India.