2 Marks Questions
Question 1 : Mention any one provision of the Gandhi Irwin Pact signed in 1931. (2014)
Answer : One of the provisions of the Gandhi Irwin Pact was the withdrawal of all the ordinances and prosecutions.
Question 2 : Name the leaders of the Khilafat Movement that was launched in Indian to champion the cause of the Caliph of Turkey. (2013)
Answer : Mohammed Ali and Shaukat Ali were the leaders of the Khilafat Movement.
Question 3 : State two methods of political struggle evolved by Mahatma Gandhi as a part of the National Movement. (2008)
Answer : The two methods of political struggle evolved by Mahatma Gandhi were the following:
i) Gandhiji promoted the use of Satyagraha which was the moral force of truth and non-violence. The Satyagraha Movement of Gandhiji was directed against the British system of exploitation and not the British people individually or collectively.
ii) Gandhiji advocated the Non-Violence Movement. According to him, non-violence is not a negative but a positive and active force. It is the virtue of the strong and not only of the weak which requires benevolence and sympathy.
Question 4 : On what assurances did Gandhiji withdraw the Civil Disobedience Movement? (2008)
Answer : Gandhiji’s withdrawal of the Civil Disobedience Movement was on the basis of the following assurances from the British Government:
i) Withdrawal of all the ordinances and the prosecutions.
ii) Releasing the political prisoners, except those guilty of violence.
Question 5 : Why was the Rowlatt Act (1919) passed? (2007)
Answer : On receiving a report from the Sedition Committee headed by Justice Rowlatt, two Bills were introduced by Central Legislature in February 1919. The purpose of the Bill was to curb the growing upsurge in the country. In spite of opposition from the Indians, the Rowlatt Act was passed in March 1919.
Question 6 : When and by whom was the Civil Disobedience Movement launched? (2004)
Answer : The Civil Disobedience Movement was launched by Mahatma Gandhi in 1930.
Question 7 : Why was the Civil Disobedience Movement of March (1930) withdrawn? (2003)
Answer : The Civil Disobedience Movement (1930) was withdrawn, because of the Gandhi Irwin Pact.
Question 8 : This question has been deleted as the same has been covered earlier.
Question 9 : Mention any two events which led to the Civil Disobedience Movement of 1930. (2002)
Answer : The two events were as follows:
i) A resolution was passed in the Lahore Session of Congress in 1929, which declared Poorna Swaraj to become the objective of the Congress. At this time, steps were initiated to start a programmed of Disobedience and 26th January, 1930 was celebrated as a ‘Day of Poorna Swaraj’.
ii) An ‘Eleven Point Ultimatum’ was served by Gandhiji to the British Government. After the government’s failure to negotiate, Gandhiji started the Civil Disobedience Movement.
Question 10 : This question has been deleted as the same has been covered earlier.
Question 11 : Why was the Dandi March undertaken? (2001)
Answer : Dandi March was undertaken so that Lord Irwin would concede to the demands, that Gandhiji had put forward ( in his ultimatum).
10 Marks Questions
Question 12 : In the Nagpur Session (1920), the Congress ratified the resolution to launch the Non-Cooperation Movement under the leadership of Gandhiji. In this context
a) What were the objectives which the Non-Cooperation Movement sought to achieve?
b) What do you understand by the term Non-Cooperation?
c) Explain the impact of the Non-Cooperation Movement in India’s struggle for freedom.
a) Objectives of the Non-Cooperation Movement were as follows:
- The issue of Khilafat.
- The redressal of the Punjab wrongs.
- The attainment of Swaraj.
b) Non-cooperation is a way of protesting, in which one does not cooperate with the evil-doer. Gandhiji asked the people not to assist the Foreign Government to rule over them.
c) Impact of the Non-Cooperation Movement were as follows:
- The Indian National Movement, for the first time in history, acquired a real mass base with the participation of different sections of Indian society such as peasants, workers, students, teachers and women.
- It generated a desire for freedom and inspired people to challenge the colonial rule. The movement undermined the power and prestige of the British Government. It created an anti-British feeling in the country.
- It transformed the Indian National Congress from a deliberative assembly into an organisation for action. This movement became the organiser and leader of the masses in their national struggle. Thus, the Congress became a force to reckon with.
- It fostered Hindu-Muslim unity, which could be seen in the merger of Khilafat issue with this movement. Gandhiji was determined to emancipate the poor and the oppressed. Removal of untouchability and promotion of Khadi became essential tools in Gandhi’s struggle against the British rule. Message of Swadeshi was spread.
- The goal of the Non-Cooperation Movement was to attain Swaraj within the British empire, if possible and outside, if necessary.
Question 13 : The Congress Working Committee passed the famous Quit Indian Resolution at Wardha in July, 1942. With reference to this, answer the following questions.
a) What were the reasons for the passing of this resolution/
b) What was the British Government’s reaction to the Quit India Movement?
c) What was the impact and significance of this movement?
a) Following were the factors for the passing of this resolution:
- Failure of the Cripps Mission. The Cripps Mission did not bring with it promise of Independence in the near future. The League opposed the creation of a single union. The proposals did not accept Pakistan specifically. They did not grant the right of self determination to the Muslims. The Indians were also not happy at the proposals of the Cripps Mission because proposals contained such provisions which could divide Indian into hundreds of independent provinces. Gandhi opposed the declaration and urged the Working Committee to reject it. He described the Cripps proposals as a ‘Post-dated cheque on a failing bank.’
- The Threat of the Japanese. In the year of 1942, the Japanese Army attacked Myanmar and marched towards India. The threat of Japanese invasion on India convinced the Indian leaders that for India’s safety, the British should withdraw from India immediately. Gandhiji believed that the presence of the British in India is an invitation for Japan to invade India. Gandhiji asked the British to quit India, because Gandhiji also felt an orderly and peaceful withdrawal of the British could save India from the internal anarchy and also external aggression.
b) Reaction of the British Government to the Quit India Movement.
The Government resorted to severe measures to crush the Quit India Movement. The press was completely muzzled. The demonstrating crowds were machine gunned and even bombed from the air. Prisoners were tortured. The police and secret police reigned. Nearly 10,000 people were killed and 60,000 people were arrested by the end of 1942. The military took over many towns and cities. Rebellious villages had to pay huge sums as punitive fines and the villagers had to undergo mass floggings. India had not witnessed such intense repression since the First War of Independence, 1857. Gandhi was detained at the Agha Khan Palace in Pune and other prominent leaders were sent to jail in Ahmednagar Fort. In the end, the Government succeeded in crushing the movement.
c) Impact and Significance of the Quit India Movement
- It demonstrated the depth of the Nationalist feelings in India and the great capacity for struggle and sacrifice that the people had developed.
- It was obvious that the British would no longer find it possible to rule India against the wishes of the people.
- It was a mass uprising before attaining Independence. People from all the parts of India took part in the processions and demonstrations. The Hindus, Muslims, Sikhs, Christians and Parsis and even people from the princely states participated.
- The emergence of Parallel Government in various places of India like Balia in Uttar Pradesh, Midnapur in Bengal and Satara in Maharashtra took place.
- The Quit India Movement led to the strengthening of the Congress socialist party because of its magnificent and heroic role in the movement. Its socialist ideas had an impact on the Indian National Congress.
Question 14 : Gandhiji introduced new ideas in politics and adopted new methods to give a new direction to the Political Movement. In this context, answer the following questions. (2012)
a) Gandhiji’s Doctrine of Satyagraha
b) Gandhiji’s social ideas
c) Which mass struggle was launched by him on non-violent lines in 1920? Explain in brief the programmes of such a campaign.
a) Gandhiji’s Doctrine of Satyagraha: Gandhi introduced the Satyagrapha, which was a method of agitation and protest based on truth and non-violence. It was a Passive resistance consisting of defiance of laws, non-payment of taxes, boycott of government institutions, etc. Gandhi’s Satyagraha Movement was directed against the British system of exploitation and not against the British people individually or collectively.
b) Gandhiji’s Social Ideas: The whole philosophy of Gandhiji was based on non-violence. According to Gandhiji, ‘Truth and non-violence is the weapon of strong, mighty and powerful individuals’. Gandhiji always used mass movements as weapon of protests. He realised that movement which involved rural, urban, men and women, educated, uneducated are more liable to have an effect. He launched many movements for gaining freedom, but none of them was violent. During the Non-Cooperation Movement, he suspended the movement because of the Chauri-Chaura Incident, in which 22 policemen were burnt alive.
c) The importance and power of the organized masses was realized by Gandhiji. He felt that a few leaders or individuals would not be able to win freedom. Due to the power of mass movement, Britishers would be forced to leave the country. In the year, 1920, Non-Cooperation Movement were started by Gandhiji.
Although, the Non-Cooperation Movement failed to achieve any of its immediate objectives, its ultimate gains were as follows:
- The National Movement became a Mass Movement.
- It instilled new confidence among the people.
- It transformed Congress from a deliberative assembly into a moral fighting force.
- It fostered the unity between the Hindus and Muslims, by merging the Khilafat Movement with this movement.
- It shattered the myth that the British rule was for the betterment of the Indians.
- It promoted social reforms. Several steps were taken in the direction of prohibition of Sati.
Question 15 : The Civil Disobedience Movement was significant in the history of the National Movement. In this context, write briefly on the following points. (2011)
a) The circumstances leading to the Civil Disobedience Movement.
b) The Second Round Table Conference
c) The Gandhi-Irwin Pact
a) The Lahore Session of Indian National Congress , 1929 had declared a resolution of Poorna Swaraj or complete independence, as ultimate objectives of the Congress. The earlier demand of dominion was rejected by Lord Irwin. At this time, steps were initiated to start a programme of disobedience and 26th January, 1930 was celebrated as a Day of Poorna Swaraj.
Gandhiji then openly made eleven demands, for fulfilling people’s welfare. On receiving a negative response from the Viceroy, the Civil Disobedience Movement was launched by Gandhiji. It aimed at forcing the government to meet the Indian demands. Gandhiji started the movement with his famous Dandi March on 12th March, 1930 which continued till 6th April, 1930 and extended from the Sabarmati Ashram to Dandi on the Gujarat coast.
b) The Second Round Table Conference: It was held in London during the Viceroyalty of Lord Willington from September to December 1931. Gandhiji attended it on behalf of Indian National Congress. The conference was soon deadlocked on the minorities issue, with Separate Electorates being demanded now not only by the Muslims, but also by the depressed classes, Indian Christians, Anglo-Indians and Europeans. The question of Independence or setting up of a responsible government receded into the background. The British Government refused to conceded to the immediate grant of dominion status. Gandhiji returned to India disappointed.
c) Gandhi-Irwin Pact : The Satyagraha Movement could not be suppressed by the Government, through Tej Bahadur Sapru and Jayakar started negotiations with Gandhiji in jail. This resulted in signing a pact by Gandhiji and Lord Irwin, the Viceroy, in March 1931, popularly called as the Gandhi Irwin Pact. According to it, the Government agreed to :
- Withdraw all ordinances and end prosecutions.
- Release all political prisoners, except those guilty of violence.
- Permit peaceful picketing of liquor and foreign cloth shops.
- Restore the confiscated properties of the Satyagrahis.
- Permit the free collection or manufacture of salt by persons near the sea coast.
Question 16 : The Simon Commission was appointed in November, 1927 by the British Government. Subsequently, the Civil Disobedience Movement began. In this context, answer the following questions (2010)
a) Why was the Simon Commission appointed by the British Government? Why did the Congress boycott the commission?
b) The Civil Disobedience Movement was launched by Gandhiji with his famous Dandi March on 12th March, 1930. Mention the significance of this historic event.
c) Why did Gandhi call off the Civil Disobedience Movement and later renew it?
Answer : a) In Novermber, 1927, the British Government appointed the Indian Statutory Commission, which was popularly known as the Simon Commission (after the name of its Chairman John Simon) to investigate the need for further constitutional reforms. This commission was composed by the seven British members of Parliament. Simon Commission was boycotted by the Congress on the following bases:
- All members of this commission were European (whites) and no Indian was associated with it.
- This was seen as a violation of the principle of self-determination and a deliberate insult to the self-respect of the Indians.
b) Significance of the Dandi March were as follows:
- The movement spread rapidly. Violation of Salt Laws over the country was soon followed by defiance of forest laws in Maharashtra, Karnataka and the Central Provinces and the refusal to pay the rural Chaukidari tax in Eastern India.
- The British Government was put out of gear in many places, e.g., Midnapore in Bengal.
- The monopoly of the British over the salt was abolished by this movement.
c) The Civil disobedience Movement was called off by Gandhiji because of the Gandhi Irwin pact, signed between Gandhiji and Viceroy Lord Irwin. In this pact, Irwin agreed to some of the demands of Gandhiji, like the abolition of salt tax, release of political prisoners, permit peaceful picketing of liquor, etc., After this, Gandhiji agreed to call off the Civil Disobedience Movement and attend the Second Round Table Conference in London.
When Gandhiji came back from London, he renewed the movement again because of the failure of the Second Round Table Conference. Gandhiji sought an interview with the Viceroy Willington. The interview was refused, post which he continued his movement.
Question 17 : In 1919, Gandhiji plunged into India’s struggle for freedom. He guided the affairs of the Indian National Congress with new techniques. Through various National movements, he got the public support to win freedom for India. In this context explain the following. (2009)
a) The reasons leading to the Non-Cooperation Movement.
b) Which resolution was passed on 8th August, 1942 leading to a mass struggle on non-violent lines? State any two reasons behind the launching of this movement.
c) The impact of the Non-Cooperation Movement in India’s struggle for freedom.
Answer: a) Reasons that led to the Non-Cooperation Movement : During the First World War, the Congress gave demonstration of its loyalty to the British. Indians were hoping for the Dominion status as a reward for their help. Instead, the British passed the Government of India Act, 1919, which set-up Dyarchy or double government in the provinces. In the year of 1918, those peasants who had been facing the effects of famine and drought resorted to Satyagraha to have their demands fulfilled.
- In the year 1918-1919, the mill workers of Ahmedabad were on a strike and received the support of Gandhiji. The movements of a local character brought Gandhiji closer to the life of the common people. He would now think of challenging the total authority of the government.
- On receiving a report of Sedition Committee headed by Justice Rowlatt, two bills were introduced in the Central Legislature in February 1919. The purpose of the bills was to curb the growing upsurge in the country. This act authorised the government to imprison any person without trial and convict him in a court.
- It was at such a time that General Dyre banned public meetings. In spite of this ban, there was a peaceful crowd gathered at the Jallianwala Bagh in Amritsar on 13th April, 1919 to protest against the arrest of leaders like Dr.Saifuddin Kitchulu and Dr. Satyapal, without much warning General Dyre ordered the army open to fire at the peaceful crowd. There was no escape route for the people. The army fired till the ammunition finished leaving 200 wounded and 400 killed according to official records. The Congress put the number of people killed to at least 1000. This event shocked Gandhiji and he decided to stop any cooperation with the British Government at every level.
b) On 8th August, the All India Congress Committee passed the Quit India Resolution. The proposal of Quit India Movement was adopted at Wardha in July 1942.
Reasons behind the launching of Quit India Movement were as follows:
- Japan declared war against Britain and America on 7th December, 1941. Her sensational victories in the opening months of 1942 obliged British Government to resolve the political deadlock in India.
- On the night of 9th August, the British Government arrested many prominent leaders like Gandhiji, Maulan Azad, Sardar Patel, Jawaharlal Nehru and other members of the Congress Working Committee and sent them to Pune. This hasty action of the Government led to the movement without any support.
c) The Impact of Non-Cooperation Movement in India
- It generated a desire for freedom and inspired people to challenge the colonial rule.
- It fostered Hindu-Muslim unity, which could be seen in the merge of Khilafat issue with this movement.
- This movement gave a new boost to nationalism in India at its annual session in Nagpur in December, 1920.
- The demand for Swaraj became much popular.
- It transformed the Indian National Congress from a deliberative assembly into an organisation for action.
Question 18 :
a) Identify the two male personalities in the picture given above. Mention any four ideological tenets of the Indian leader. (2006)
b) Explain the reason behind the launching of the Khilafat Movement in India. Why were the Khilafat and Non-Cooperation Movements merged in 1920?
c) Why was the Non-Cooperation Movement withdrawn? How did this decision lead to the formation of the Swaraj Party?
Answer: a) Lord Mountbatten and Mahatma Gandhi are the two male personalities in the above picture. Satyagraha, Boycott, Swadeshi, Non-violence, Mass movements etc. were the ideological tenets of the Indian leader.
b) Khilafat Movement in India : In the World War I, Turkey was defeated and the Ottoman empire was divided. The Sultan of Turkey, who was the Caliph, was deprived of all authority. The Caliph was looked upon by a large section of Muslims as their religious head. This angered the Indian Muslims and they started an agitation known as the Khilafat Movement, under the leadership of the Ali Brothers-Mohammed Ali and Shaukat Ali, Maulan Azad, Hakim Azmal Khan and Hasrat Mohani. The Khilafat and Non-Cooperation Movements were merged in 1920 to bring about Hindu-Muslim unity.
c) The Non-Cooperation Movement was withdrawn because of the tragedy in Chauri-Chaura a village in Gorakhpur district in Uttar Pradesh, occurred on 5th february , 1922. A procession of about 3000 peasants marched the police station to protest against the police officer who had beaten some vounteers picketing a liquor shop. This infuriated the demonstrators and they set the nearby police station on fire, killing 22 policemen who were inside the police station. Gandhiji realising his Non-Cooperation Movement turning into violent withdrew the movement which demoralized the Congress Party. This action of Gandhiji was severely criticised by leaders like Motilal Nehru and Lala Lajpat Rai.
Formation of the Swaraj Party: Some of the leaders like Motiala Nehru and CR Das suggested that the nationalists should end the boycott of the Legislative Council. They should enter them and obstruct every work of the council. They felt that by doing like this they would be continuing the Non-Cooperation Movement in a more effective form. All those leaders, who supported the council entry programme formed a party called Swaraj Party of the Congress Khilafat Swaraj Party.
Question 19 : Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow. (2005)
On 7th and 8th August in Bombay the All-India Congress Committee considered and debated in public the resolution,….the Committee resolves therefore to sanction, ….the starting of a mass struggle on non-violent lines under the inevitable leadership of Gandhiji…..The resolution was finally passed late in the evening of 8th August, 1942. A few hours later, in the early morning of 9th August, a large number of arrests were made in Bombay and all over the country. (From: The Discovery of India – Jawaharlal Nehru)
a) What is meant by ‘mass struggle on non-violent lines’? Which resolution was passed on the 8th August, 1942 leading to a mass struggle on non-violent lines?
b) State any three reasons behind the launching of the August, Movement (1942).
c) Discuss any four consequences of the 1942 Movement.
Answer : a) The term mass struggle means peaceful protest, demonstration and strikes by the public. The Indian National Movement, for the first time in history, acquired a real mass base movement during the Non-Cooperation Movement with the participation of different sections of Indian society, such as peasants, workers, students, teachers and women.
The Quit India Resolution was passed on 8th August, 1942.
b) Reasons behind the launching of the August Movement (1942) were as follows:
- The Cripps Mission did not bring with it the promise of Independence in the near future. The League opposed the creation of a single union. The proposals did not accept Pakistan specifically. They did not grant the right of self-determination to Muslims. The Indians were also not happy at the proposals of Cripps Mission because the proposals contained such provisions that could divide India into hundreds of independent provinces. Gandhi opposed the Declaration and urged the Working Committee to reject it. He described the Cripps proposals as a ‘post-dated cheque on a failing bank.’
- In the year 1942, the Japanese Army attacked Myanmar and marched towards India. The threat of Japanese invasion of India convinced the Indian leaders that for India’s safety, the British should withdraw from India immediately. Gandhiji believed that the presence of British in India is an invitation for Japan to invade India. Gandhiji asked the British to quit India, because Gandhiji also felt that an orderly and peaceful withdrawal of the British could save India from the internal anarcy and also an external aggression.
- The Congress believed that the British were supporting the League and if they leave India, the people could sort out their differences. The Indian National Congress wanted the immediate withdrawal of the British to save India from the Japanese Invasion.
c) Consequences of the 1942 Movement were as follows:
- The Quit India Movement demonstrated the depth of the Nationalist feelings in India and the capacity of Indians for struggle and sacrifice that the people had developed.
- This movement strengthened the Congress Socialist Party because of its heroic role in the movement. The party continued its underground movement till 1944, when it came to an end.
- It made it clear that the British would no longer find it possible to rule India against the wishes of its people.
- It was the mass uprising before attaining Independence. People from all the parts of India took part in processions and demonstrations.
Question 20 : The Indian National Congress, at its Nagpur Session, in 1920 ,decided to launch the Non-Cooperation Movement. In this context, explain the following: (2004)
a) Meaning of the Non-Cooperation Movement
b) Methods and programmes of the movement.
c) Reasons for the withdrawal of the movement.
Answer: a) Non-cooperation is a way of protesting, in which one does not cooperate with the evil-doer. Gandhiji asked the people not to assist the Foreign Government to rule over them.
b) Methods and programmes of the movement were as follows:
- The Congress boycotted the elections to the Legislature by not putting up candidates for the first election to the councils.
- Shops selling foreign foods and liquor were picketed. Foreign cloth was burnt in market places.
- Lawyers such as Deshbandhu Chittaranjan Das, Motilal Nehru, Dr Rajendra Prasad and many others gave up their legal practices.
- Development of unity between Hindus and Muslims, removal of untouchability and other measures for Harijan welfare were undertaken.
c) Reasons for the Withdrawal of the Movement
The Non-Cooperation Movement was withdrawn because of the tragedy at Chauri Chaura, a village in Gorakhpur district in Uttar Pradesh, occurred on 5th February, 1922. A procession of about 3000 peasants marched to the police station to protest against the police officer who had beaten some volunteers picketing a liquor shop. This infuriated the demonstrators and they set the nearby police station on fire, killing 33 policemen who were inside the police station.
Gandhiji, reaslising his Non-Cooperation Movement turning out to be violent, withdrew the movement. The withdrawal of the movement demoralized the Congress Party. This action of Gandhiji was severely crticised by leaders like Motilal Nehru and Lala Lajpat Rai.
Question 21 : In the context of the Civil Disobedience Movement, explain the importance of the following (2004)
a) The Simon Commission (1927)
b) Nehru Report (1928)
c) The Lahore Session of the Indian Congress (1929)
Answer : a) The Simon Commission (1927) : The activities of the Swaraj Party had induced the British Government to review the working of the Dyarchy System introduced by the Montague-Chelmsford reforms of 1919 and to report as to what extent can representative government be introduced in India. The Simon Commission was appointed by the British Government, in 1927. All members of this commission were Europeans, so the Indian political leaders decided to boycott the commission. The Muslim League and the Hindu Mahasabha decided to support the Congress decision. The government used brutal suppression and police attacks to break the popular opposition.
b) Nehru Report (1928): Lord Birkenhead, the Secretary of State for India, justified the exclusion of Indians in the Simon Commission. According to him, the Indians were not united and could not arrive at an ‘agreed scheme of reforms’. To refute this charge, an All Parties Conference was convened in 1928 to take up the challenge posed by Lord Birkenhead.
The committee was set up under the chairmanship of Motilal Nehru to determine the principles of the Constitution before drafting it. The chief architects of the report were Motilal Nehru and Tej Bahadur Sapru. The recommendation evoked a lively debate concerning the goal of India-Dominion Status or Complete Independence.
c) The Lahore Session of the Indian National Congress (1929) : The Annual Session of the Indian National Congress was held in Lahore December, 1929, under the Presidentship of Jawaharlal Nehru. The Indian National Congress passed a resolution declaring Poorna Swaraj (complete independence) to be the goal of the National Movement. On 31st December, 1929, the newly adopted tricolour flag was unfurled and 26th January was fixed as the Independence Day, which was to celebrated every year, pleading to the people not to submit to the British rule any longer.