1 Mark Questions
Answer: When suffering from diarrhoea, Sudha should avoid oily, fried or fatty foods as as well as sugar in her meals.
Answer: Two suitable semi solid dishes for suffering from fever suitable for Gagan/Sudha are khichri and dalia(porridge)
Answer: Two suitable dishes for Gagan will be vegetable soups and fruit juices.
Answer: ORS(Oral Rehydration Solition) is given to a person when is suffering from diarrhoea.
2 Marks Questions
Answer: Green leafy vegetables should not be served to people suffering from diarrhoea because these vegetables are rich in roughage ,which irritates the lining of the intestines and causes inflammation. Oily and spicy foods a re the other food items to be avoided.
Answer: Constipation occurs when retention of faeces in the colon goes beyond the normal length of emptying time.
Suggested dietary requirements of a patient of constipation are:
(i) Consume plenty of fluids(at least 8 to 10 glasses every day).
(ii) Eat fibre rich foods and laxative foods liberally.
Answer: Meals for a patient can be modified from normal meals by:
Change in Consistency We can give a liquid diet(e.g. dal,soups)or semi solid/soft diet (e.g. custar,khichri).
Change in Cooking Method We can steam mixed vegetables instead of frying them in oil.
Answer:Meals for a patient can be modified from normal meals by:
Change in Frequency Give small meals at frequent intervals. For instance, give kala chana to a diabetic patient every two hours.
Change in Nutrients One nutrient may be increased or decreased. For instance, give high fibre food for constipation,low fibre for diarrhoea,low salt for high blood pressure, etc.
Answer:Meals for a patient can be modified from normal meals by:
Change in Food Items We can make Khichri instead of dal, rice and vegetables .
Change in Cooking Methods We can steam mixed vegetables instead of frying them in oil.
3 Marks Questions
Answer: Three therapeutic meal modifications with regard to consistency are:
Liquid Diet This includes liquid foods,strained and free from any solid particles,e,g, fruit juices,soups ,buttermilk,etc.
Semi-solid diet This includes food in semi liquid state and free from any spices,e.g. dalia,khicri,half boiled egg,etc.
Soft Diet This includes soft,easy to chew,simple,easily digestible foods containing no spices,e.g boiled vegetables,stewed fruit,etc.
Answer: Six examples of therapeutic meal modifications in diets made to correct the nutritional status of specific nutrients:
(i) High or low calorie diet
(ii) High or low carbohydrate diet
(iii) High or low protein diet
(iv) High or low fibre diet
(v) Low sodium diet
(vi) No sugar diet
Answer:Two reasons for giving ORS during diarrhoea are:
(i) ORS(Oral Rehydration Solution) helps to prevent dehydration in the body by replacing fluids lost through frequent watery stools.
(ii) It helps to restore water-electrolyte balance in the body.
Answer:Hypertension is too high a pressure of blood flow in the arteries.
The clinical symptoms of hypertension are:
(ii) Frequent Headache
Precautions to be followed/specific dietary recommendations for such patients are:
(i) consume less salt or sodium free salt
(ii)Avoid processed food with high salt content like sauces,papads and chutnets.
(iii) Take a high fibre diet
(iv) Drink plenty of water.
Answer:Diabetes is metabolic disorder caused by low or no secretion of the insulin hormone by the pancreas.The clinical symptoms of diabetes are:
(i) Excessive thirst and hunger
(ii) Frequent urination.
(iii) Delayed healing of wounds and cuts
The food normally cooked in the family is not suitable for him because it contains a high amount of carbohydrates,which will worsen his diabetic condition.Important dietary changes/dietary recommendations in a meal for such a person are:
(i)High protein and low carbohydrate diet should be given.For example,curd ,paneer and egg.
(ii) Fried food should be avoided to reduce fat intake.
(iii) Give only permitted fruits in moderation. Sour fruits like orange,other fruits like watermelon ,pineapple,jamun,guava can be taken.
(iv) Eat smaller portions of foods every 2-3 hours.
Answer: Jaundice is an infection of the liver causing increase in bile pigments above the normal range.
The clinical symptoms of jaundice are:
(ii) Dark yellow urine
(iii) Pale skin and eyes
Dietary recommendation/changes for such patients are:
(i) Consume a bland diet
(ii) Eat food which is light and easily digestible
(iii) Avoid fried foods and consume fat free foods.
(iv) Consume lots of fluids.
5 Marks Questions
Answer:The adequacy of each item for lunch is given below with reasons:
Moong Dal The lactating mother should be given more dal(for more protein) with little spices.coriander leaver/palak leaves (for vitamin A) and lemon(vitamin C) should be added in the dal for her.
For the family member suffering from diabetes,whole dal can be given to provide less protein and more fibre.
Boiled Rice Add broccoli(for folic acid and zinc) to the rice as a garnishing for the lactating mother. For the diabetic member,polished rice should be totally avoided ,as it raises the blood sugar levels.However ,he can eat brown (unpolished) rice.
Potato and carrot Bhajiya The carrot gives vitamin A and potatoes give carbohydrates(giving energy) which are both essential fro the lactating mother.The diabetic should only eat carrots.The potatoes will raise blood sugar levels;so he should avoid them.
Chapati As the lactating mother needs more calcium ,plain chapatis are inadequate.The dough of chapatis should be mixed with paneer and then kneaded to give the additional calcium .The diabetic should eat chapatis made from coarse cereals like ragi or jowar. Fine cereals should be avoided ,as they raise blood sugar level.
Answer: Five changes in a normal diet which are made for therapeutic reasons are:
Consistency Changes in consistency are to a liquid,semi solid or soft diet.These are done in cases of problems in chewing ,swallowing ,digestion,presence of ulcers,etc.
Frequency Change sin frequency are necessary in case of diseases like diabetes, diarrhoea,etc. when patients cannot digest large amounts of food at one time.For a normal person,three to four meals may be give in a day at intervals of four to five hours each,whereas in this case,the meals are given at shorter intervals of two to three hours.
Food Items Changes in food items are made to exclude those items which cause allergies or intolerance in some people.Gluten freediet and eggless diet are given to people who are intolerant of gluten protein(found in wheat) and people who are allergic to eggs respectively.
Nutrients Changes in nutrients are made to maintain,restore or correct the nutritional status of a specific nutrient. these are usually necessary to prevent aggravation of chronic diseases like diabetes,etc.
Cooking Method Instead of normal cooking,we can adopt steaming,boiling,stewing ,grilling,baking,etc. These methods of cooking are usually adopted for people recovering from diseases or from operations of gastro-intestinal tract.
Answer: Additional nutritional requirements of diarrhoea patients with their are:
Energy Due to losing many nutrients from the body frequently,the energy requirement of a diarrhoea patient increase by 25% to 50% above normal.
Protein Due to frequent stools, the protein bearing tissues are depleted and these needs to be replaced.
Iron Due to frequent stools and sometimes also blood loss in faeces,there is loss of iron,which needs to be replaced.
Carbohydrates Diarrhoea patients require more easily digestible carbohydrates because the digestive enzymes are functional. In addition ,low residue foods reduce the food wasted in the intestines.
Water Soluble Vitamins Additional vitamins like Folic acid,vitamin C and vitamin B12 are increasingly lost in frequent stools.