### 1 Mark Questions

**Answer :** Planning is a process of development of a strategy to achieve and desire objectives, to solve problems and to facilitate action. With the help of appropriate planning in the field of games and sports, even hitherto unachievable tasks can be achieved.

**Answer :** Various types of tournaments are:

i) Knock-out or Elimination tournament.

ii) League or Round Robin tournament.

iii) Combination touranment

iv) Challenge tournament

**Answer :** This type of tournament is also known as elimination tournament. In this type of tournament, loser of each bracket is immediately eliminated from the tournament.

**Answer :** There are two types of league or round robin tournaments.

i)** Single League Tournament :** In a single league, every team plays with every other team once.

Number of matches = N(N-1)/2

*Where, N = Number of teams.*

ii) **Double League Tournament :** In double league, every team plays with every other team twice.

Number of matches = N(N-1)

*Where, N = Number of teams.*

**Answer :** Consolation tournament are those tournaments in which an additional chance is given to the defeated team.

**Answer :** Seeding is a procedure in which good teams are placed in fixtures in such a way that stronger teams do not meet each other at the very start of a tournament. In seeding, the strong teams are selected to keep them at appropriate places in the fixtures so that they should not meet in the earlier rounds.

**Answer :** Bye is a privilege given to a team which is decided generally by seeding it or by draw of lots.

**Answer :** Byes can be applied equally to single person competitions and team sports as well as to single game eliminations and best of series eliminations. If the number of competitors or competing teams are not a multiple of 2 then some teams may get ‘bye’.

**Answer :** For for giving bye:

= Next power of 2 – No. of Teams

Upper Half = (nb-1)/2

Lower Half = (nb+1)/2

**Answer :** A league tournament is also known as round robin tournament. In this type of tournament, each contestant meets all other contestants in turns.

**Answer :** The two objectives of intramurals are:

i) To provide incentive, motivation and opportunity to learn various skills.

ii) To develop sportsman spirit among students.

**Answer :** Extramural means ‘between institutions’ or we can say that these competitions are conducted between the players of two or more institutions.

**Answer :** To promote mass participation and to explore the hidden talent of the students.

**Answer :** Specific sports programmes are:

i) Health run

ii) Run for fun

iii) Run for specific causes

iv) Run for unity

### 3 Marks Questions

**Answer :** The names of the various committees are:

- Arrangement Committee
- Technical Committee
- Discipline Committee
- Reception Committee
- Boarding and Lodging Committees
- Certificate Writing Committee
- Medical Committee
- Announcement Committee
- Recorders and Bulletin Board Committee

**Answer :** The importance of tournaments are:

i) **Source of recreation :** A large number of people go to watch various games and sports for getting recreation. Sports tournaments provide ample recreation to the spectators.

ii) **Development of Social Qualities :** Social qualities such as cooperation, tolerance, sympathy, group cohesion, brotherhood and discipline are developed among participants through sports tournaments.

**Answer :** In this type of tournament, the team which is defeated once gets eliminated immediately and will not be given another chance to play. The total number of matches to be played in this tournament will be equal to the number of teams participating minus one (N-1), e.g. if 21 teams are participating, the total number of matches will be 21-1 = 20.

Number of teams in upper half

= (N+1)/2

= (21+1)/2

= 11

Number of teams in lower half

= (N-1)/2

= (21-1)/2

= 10

Total number of byes = Next power of two – total teams

= 32-21

= 11 byes

**Answer :** A single elimination tournament (also called an Olympic system tournament) or a knock-out tournament is a type of elimination tournament where the loser of each bracket is immediately eliminated from the tournament. In some such tournaments, consolation or ‘classification’ contests are subsequently held among those already defeated to determine the awarding of lesser places. For instance, a third place playoff.

The disadvantages of knock-out tournament are:

- There are chances of weaker team to get to finals.
- In case of poor play in a particular match, the better team may not qualify for the next round.

**Answer :** The advantages of knock-out tournaments are:

- Minimum number of officials are required in organising tournaments.
- Less number of matches are played, thus requiring less time to complete the tournaments.
- It helps in enhancing the standard of sports.