Short Questions and Answers
One mark questions with answers
1. A sterilization technique is
(d) cervical cap
Answer: (c) tubectomy
2. A contraceptive is
(a) condom, cervical cap or diaphragm
(b) Intrauterine device
(d) all the above
Answer: (d) all the above
3. The technique using fluid around foetus in detection of prenatal disorders is
(d) natal endoscopy
Answer: (b) amniocentesis
4. Purpose of tubectomy is to prevent
(b) egg formation
(d) embryonic development
Answer: (c) fertilization
5. Amniocentesis is used for determining
(a) heart disease
(b) brain disease
(c) hereditary diseases of embryo
(d) all the above
Answer: (c) hereditary diseases of embryo
6. Contraceptive oral pills help in birth control by
(a) killing of ova
(b) preventing ovulation
(c) killing the sperms
(d) forming barrier between sperms and ova
Answer: (b) preventing ovulation
7. Most important component of oral contraceptive is
Answer: (c) progesterone
8. Copper T/ loop prevents
(c) zygote formation
Answer: (b) fertilization
9. Which is related to males?
(a) oral pill
(d) none of the above
Answer: (c) vasectomy
10. A method of sterilization is
Answer: (c) tubectomy
11. Chancroid is a sexually transmitted disease caused by
Answer: (b) Haemophilus
12. The test which is used for study of genetic and metabolic defects of an unborn baby is
(d) clotting test
Answer: (a) amniocentesis
13. In production of test tube babies
(a) fertilization is external and foetus formation internal
(b) fertilization is internal and foetus formation external
(c) both fertilization and foetus formation internal
(d) both fertilization and foetus formation external
Answer: (a) fertilization is external and foetus formation internal
14. An IUCD is
(a) Copper T
Answer: (a) Copper T
Two marks questions with answers
1. Removal of gonads cannot be considered as contraceptive option. Why?
Answer: Contraception is meant for preventing conceptions and not for affecting body functions including appearance and physiology. Removal of gonads will result in non-secretion of sex. Virilism would appear in ladies while gents may come to have softer body contours.
2. Amniocentesis for sex determination is banned in our country. Is this ban necessary. Comment.
Answer: Yes. Amniocentesis along with sonography is being misused to determine the sex of the foetus. Due to small family norms along with their religion and social practices every family wants a male child. The female foetus is destroyed. This has resulted in decline in female population to less than 50 per hundred males in certain areas. Such an imbalance in sex ratio is bound to create social problems for the future generations. Therefore the test has been banned.
3. Suggest some methods to assist infertile couples.
Answer: The technology that helps infertile couples to have children is called as ART or assisted reproductive technology. The most common method is IVF or test tube baby. Oocytes from female and sperm from the males are used for fertilization is glass containers (in vitro fertilization or IVF). The fertilized eggs are allowed to undergo cleavage in an incubator for 2 to 3 days. They are then introduced into the uterus of the female for implantation and growth. Success rate is 15 to 20%.
4. What are the measures one has to take to protect from contracting STDs?
Answer: (a) avoiding sex with unknown partners/ multiple partners.
(b) always use condoms during coitus.
(c) visiting qualified doctor for early detection and complete cure
5. Mention two differences between vasectomy and tubectomy.
Answer: Vasectomy is a surgical sterilization technique for males whereas tubectomy is a surgical sterilization technique for the females. In case of vasectomy the two vasa deferentia are interrupted by giving cuts whereas in tubectomy the two oviducts are interrupted by either ligation or cuts.
Three marks questions with answers
1. Explain briefly amniocentesis
Answer: It is a prenatal technique of studying the genetic and metabolic disorders of the foetus by taking out a small quantity of amniotic fluid. Amniotic fluid contains foetal cells class, placental cells, foetal enzymes, proteins and other biochemicals. Foetal cells give information about sex and chromosomal abnormalities. Analysis of enzymes, proteins and biochemicals provides information about metabolic disorders. If the foetus suffers from incurable genetic and metabolic disorders MTP is used. However, the technique has been misused for knowing the sex of the foetus and destroying the same if the foetus is female. Therefore the test has been banned except at genetic centres.
2. What is sexually transmitted disease or STDs?
Answer: Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) or venereal diseases are reproductive tract infections which are transmitted from one human being to another through sexual intimacy, example, gonorrhea, syphilis, genital herpes, genital warts, trichomoniasis, chancroid, hepatitis B and AIDS. AIDS( HIV) and hepatitis B are also transmitted through sharing surgical instruments, injections, needles, transfusion of blood and from infected mother to foetus. Except for AIDS, hepatitis B and genital herpes all other STDs are completely curable if detected and treated early. However early symptoms are generally minor like itching, fluid discharge, slight pain and swelling in the genital regions. In female, they are often asymptomatic and remain undetected for long for the due to social stigma attached to STDs the infected persons do not go in for timely detection and medical treatment. It results in pelvic inflammatory disease, abortion, stillbirth, ectopic pregnancy, infertility and cancer of reproductive tract.
3. What is tubectomy?
Answer: It is a surgical procedure of female sterilization where a portion of both the fallopian tubes is excised or ligated to block the passage of ovum through them. Tubectomy is performed by conventional transabdominal surgery, conventional laparotomy and minilaparotomy. In surgical procedures the fallopian tubes are cut and at the cut endoscopy tied to prevent reunion. The procedure is reversible as the cut ends can be rejoined. In laparoscopic procedures sterilization is achieved by loop development and constricting the basal region of loop with the help of silastic ring either through a small incision in the abdomen or through vagina.
4. Is the use of contraceptives justified? Give reasons.
Answer: (a). It helps in spacing the birth of children so that the parents can properly look after them and provide the best facilities as per their means
(b). it slows down the growth of population
(c). some barrier type contraceptives check the spread of STDs
(d). contraceptives are user friendly. They take away the fear of conception and allow the couple to lead a healthy reproductive life