Resources and Development Questions and Answers CBSE Class 10 Board Exam

1 Mark Questions

Question 1. Classify resources on the basis of origin. 

Answer : On the basis of origin resources are classified as biotic and abiotic resources.

Question  2. Give one difference between renewable and non-renewable resources. 

Answer :  Renewable: Replenished by nature and may be overused e. g., crops and plants.

Non-renewable: which get exhausted after years of use. e.g, crude oil.

Question 3. Give an example of non-renewable resources. 

Answer :  Coal/Minerals.

Question 4. What are resources which are found in a region but have not been utilised called? 

Answer : Potential resources.

Question 5. Which resources are surveyed and determined on the basis of their quantity and quality for utilisation?

Answer : Developed resources.

Question 6. Give examples of abiotic resources.

Answer :  Rocks and metals.

Question 7. Give examples of biotic resources.

Answer : Human beings, flora, fauna, fisheries, livestock, etc.

Question 8. Which relief features of India has 30 percent of the total surface area of country? 

Answer : Mountain.

Question 9. Which cold desert is relatively isolated from the rest of the country?

Answer : Ladakh

Question 10. Which regions of India have well developed terrace farming? 

Answer : Western and central Himalayas

Question 11. Which soil types is made up of lava flows? 

Answer : Black soil.

Question 12. In which states has mining caused severe land degradation? 

Answer : Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh and Odisha.

Question 13. What is the percentage share of plains in the total land area? 

Answer :  43%.

Question 14. What is the main cause of land degradation in Punjab? 

Answer : Over irrigation.

Question 15. In which states is black soil found? 

Answer : Maharashtra, Saurashtra, Malwa, Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh.

Question 16. Which soil is ideal for growing cotton? 

Answer : Regur soil.

Question 17. In which states overgrazing is responsible for land degradation? 

Answer : Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Gujarat and Maharashtra.

Question 18. In which states laterite soil is found?

Answer :  Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Madhya Pradesh, and hilly areas of Odisha and Assam.

Question 19. Which soil type is the result of intense leaching due to heavy rainfall?

Answer : Laterite soil.

Question 20. Name the land with deep channels that is unfit for cultivation. 

Answer : Bad land.

Question 21. Which state has the largest area under black soil? 

Answer : Maharashtra.

Question 22. What are the methods of checking soil erosion? 

Answer : Strip cropping, terrace farming and contour ploughing.

Question 23. Gully erosion is common in which basin? 

Answer :  Chambal Basin.

3 Marks Questions

Question 24. What is Agenda 21? List its two principles. 

Answer :  Agenda 21 was adopted a t first International Earth Summit held in 1992 at Rio de Janerio Brazil.

• The two principles are as follows:

(a) To combat environmental damage, poverty, disease through global cooperation on common interests, mutual needs and shared responsibilities.

(b) Every local government should draw its own local Agenda 21.

Question 25. Why is it essential to have resource planning? Explain any three reasons. 

Answer :  (i) Ifthe presenttrend of resource depletion by few individuals continues, the future of our planet is in danger.

(ii) Planning is essential for sustainable existence of all forms of life.

(iii) Indiscriminate exploitation of resources has led to global ecological crises.

Question 26. In India, some regions are rich in certain types of resources but deficient in some other resources”. Do you agree with the statement? Support your answer with any three examples. 

Answer : Yes, there are regions which are rich in certain types of resources but are deficient in some other resources.

(i) Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh and Madhya Pradesh are rich in minerals and coal deposits.

(ii) Arunachal Pradesh has abundance o f water resources but lacks in infrastructural development.

(iii) Rajasthan is endowed with solar and wind energy but lacks in water resources.

(iv) Ladakh has rich cultural heritage but lacks in water resources and infrastructure.

Question 27. Distinguish between red soil and laterite soil stating any three points of distinction 

Answer : 

Red soil :

  1. Laterite soil Red soil develops on crystalline igneous rocks in areas of low rainfall.
  2. Red soil is found in parts of Odisha and Chhattisgarh, southern parts of the middle of Ganga plain and along the piedmont zone of the Western ghats.
  3. Red soil develops a reddish colour due to diffusion of iron in crystalline and metamorphic rocks

Laterite soil :

  1. Laterite soil develops in areas with high temperature and heavy rainfall.
  2. Laterite soil is mainly found in Karnataka, Kerala and the hilly areas of Odisha and Assam.
  3. In laterite soil, humus content is very low.

Question 28. Which is the main cause of land degradation in Gujarat, Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh? How can it be checked? Explain. 

Answer :  (i) Main cause: Large scale overgrazing has caused severe land degradation

(ii) Measures to check include:

(a) Afforestation and proper management of grazing.

(b) Planting of shelter belts of plants.

(c) Stabilization of sand dunes by growing thorny bushes.

(d) Control on overgrazing.

Question 29. Describe any three measures of controlling land degradation. 



Explain any three steps taken to solve the problem of land degradation in India.

Answer :  (i) Afforestation and proper management of grazing can help to some extent.

(ii) Planting of shelter belts, control on over-grazing, stabilisation of sand dune by growing thorny bushes.

(iii) Proper management of wastelands, control of mixing activities, proper discharge and disposal of industrial effluents and wastes after treatment can reduce land and water degradation in industrial and sub-urban areas are some of the methods to check land degradation.

Question  30. Mention any three features of arid soils. 

Answer :  (i) Arid soils range from red to brown in colour.

(ii) They are generally sandy in texture and saline in nature.

(iii) Due to dry climate, high temperature, evaporation is faster and the soil lacks humus and moisture.

(iv) The lower horizons of the soil are occupied by Kankar because of the increasing calcium content downwards. (Any three).

Question 31. ‘Land is a natural resource of utmost importance’. Justify the statement with appropriate arguments. 

Answer :  (i) We live on land, we perform our economic activities on land and we use it in different ways.

(ii) It supports natural vegetation, wildlife, human life, economic activities, transport and communication systems.

(iii) It is an asset of a finite magnitude.

Question 32. Indiscriminate use of resources had led to numerous problems.’ Justify this statement.

Answer : Resources are vital for human survival and it was believed that resources are free gift of nature. The indiscriminate use of resources led to the following problems:

(i) To satisfy the greed of few individuals, depletion of resources has continued.

(ii) Due to the accumulation of resources in few hands, the society gets divided into two segments, e.g., rich and poor.

(iii) Indiscriminate use of resources has led to ecological crises, e.g., ozone layer depletion, land degradation, global warming and environmental pollution.

Question 33. How can you contribute to minimize the pollution. Explain. 

Answer : We can contribute to minimize the pollution by:

(i) Planting more plants and trees.

(ii) Using non-conventional sources of energy such as solar and wind energy.

(iii) Using public transport instead of personal car/ motor bike etc.

(iv) Saving water and electricity.

Question 34. Define the following terms:

(i) Current fallow land

(ii) Other than current fallow

(iii) Culturable waste land 

Answer :  (i) Current fallow land : Left uncultivated for one or less than one agricultural year.

(ii) Other than current fallow : Left uncultivated for past 1 to 5 agricultural years.

(iii) Cultural waste land : Left uncultivated for more than 5 agricultural years.

Question 35. Explain any three human activities responsible for land degradation in India. 


How are human activities responsible for the degradation of land? 

Answer : (i) Mining: Mining sites are abandoned after excavation work is complete leaving deep scars in states such as Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh and Odisha. Deforestation due to mining has caused severe land degradation.

(ii) Over irrigation: Over irrigation in the states of Punjab, Haryana, western Uttar Pradesh, has caused water logging and increase in salinity of soil.

(iii) Overgrazing: Overgrazing in states such as Gujarat, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra is a huge cause due to cattle population

(iv) Industries: Mineral processing industry like grinding of limestone for cement industry and calcite and soapstone for ceramic industry generate huge quantity of dust. This retards the process of infiltration of water into the soil.

(v) Industrial waste: Industrial effluents also have become a major source of land degradation.

Question 36. Suggest any three methods of soil conservation suitable to Indian conditions. 


What steps can be taken to control soil erosion in hilly areas? 

Answer : Methods of soil conservation:

(i) Ploughing along the contour lines can decrease the speed of water flow down the slopes.

(ii) Step or terrace cultivation on slopes restricts erosion. Western and Central Himalayas have well-developed terrace farming.

(iii) Strip cropping: Here large fields can be divided into strips. Strips of grass are left to grow between the crops. This breaks up the force of the wind.

(iv) Shelter belt plantation: Trees are planted in rows. These shelter belts have led to the stabilisation of sand dunes and in stabilising the desert in western India.

Question 37. What is meant by the term “resource”? List the types of resources classified on the basis of its ownership. 

Answer : (i) Resource: Everything available in our environment which can be used to satisfy our needs, provided, it is technologically accessible, economically feasible and culturally acceptable is known as a resource.

(ii) Types of resources on the basis of ownership are: Individual, community, national and international.

Question 38. Distinguish between the renewable and nonrenewable resources. 

Answer : (i) Renewable  resources Resources which can be renewed or reproduced by mechanical, physical or chemical processes are known as renewable or replenishable resources, e.g., solar and wind energy, water, forests and wildlife, etc.

(ii) Non-renewable resources : These occur over very long geological times. Minerals and fossil fuels are examples of such resources. These resources take millions of years in their formation. Some of the resources like metals are recyclable and some of them such as fossil fuels cannot be recycled and get exhausted with their use.

Question 39. Distinguish between stock and potential resource. Give one example of each. 

Answer :  (i) Stock :

(a) They are found in the environment.

(b) They are not accessed due to the lack of technology.

(c) Example: Water is a compound of two inflammable gases—hydrogen and oxygen, which can be used as a rich source of energy. But we do not have the required technical know-how to use them for this purpose.

Potential resources :

(a) They are found in a region.

(b) Th e y have not been utilized or developed.

(c) Example: Rajasthan and Gujarat have enormous potential for the development of wind and solar energy but they are yet to be developed for various reasons.

Question 40. Distinguish between Khadar and Bangar soil.


How are alluvial soils formed? How is Bangar different from Khadar? 

Answer : Alluvial soil: It is soil formed by the sediments deposited by river water.

Khadar soil :

  1. It is a new alluvial soil.
  2. Lower concentration of kankar nodules
  3. It has more fine particles
  4. It is more fertile

 Bangar soil :

  1. It is an old alluvial soil.
  2. Higher concentration of kankar nodules.
  3. It has less fine particles.
  4. It is less fertile.

Question 41. Explain any three factors responsible for soil formation.

Answer :  (i) The parent rock is the first factor which provides the basic material for the formation of soil.

(ii) Climate breaks the parent rock into small pieces.

(iii) Vegetation: Plant and animal organisms help in the weathering of the rocks slowly but continuously

(iv) Various forces of nature such as change in temperature, actions of running water, wind and glaciers, activities of decomposers, etc., contribute to the formation of soil.

(v) Chemical and organic changes take place in the

Question 42. Which geographical factors are responsible for the evolution of black soil? Why is it considered the most suitable for growing cotton? 

Answer : (i) Climatic conditions along with present rock material are important factors for making of black soil. The parent rock is volcanic rock.

(ii) It is ideal for growing cotton because of the following reasons:

(a) It has capacity to hold moisture.

(b) It is rich in soil nutrients such as calcium carbonate and potash. (c) Deep cracks in the soil help in aeration.

Question 43. Mention any two human activities which are responsible for the process of soil erosion. Explain the two types of soil erosion mostly observed in India? 

Answer : (i) Two human activities which are responsible for the process of soil erosion are deforestation and overgrazing, mining, construction, etc.

(ii) Types of Soil Erosion:

(a) Gu l l ies: The running water cuts through the clayey soil and makes deep channels/gullies. The unfit land caused by gullies is called bad land or ravines.

(b) Sheet erosion: water flows as a sheet over large areas down a slope. The top soil is washed away .This process is known as sheet erosion.

Question 44. Differentiate between stock and reserve stating two points of difference. 

Answer : Stock : Materials, which have the potential to satisfy human beings but human do not have the appropriate technology to access these, are termed as stock. We do not have the required technical ‘know-how’ to use them for a specific purpose. e.g., water which is a compound of two inflammable gases—hydrogen and oxygen and can be a rich source of energy. We do not know how to use them.

Reserves : These are subset of the stock. They can be put into use with existing know-how but their use has not been started. For e.g., river water is used as a source of hydroelectricity but to a limited extent. Thus, the water in the dams, forests, etc., are reserves which can be used in the future.

Question 45. Explain the types of resources on the basis of exhaustibility with the help of examples. 

Answer : (i) Renewable resources : Resources which can be renewed or reproduced by mechanical, physical or chemical processes are known as renewable or replenishable resources, e.g., solar and wind energy, water, forests and wildlife, etc.

(ii) Non-renewable resources : These occur over very long geological times. Minerals and fossil fuels are examples of such resources. These resources take millions of years in their formation. Some of the resources like metals are recyclable and some of them such as fossil fuels cannot be recycled and get exhausted with their use. 46. (i) Identification and inventory

Question 46. What are the three stages of resource planning in India? 

Answer : (i) Identification and inventory of resources across the regions of the country.

(ii) Evolving a planning structure endowed with appropriate technology, skill and institutional set up for implementing resource development plans.

(iii) Match the resource development plans with overall national development plans.

Question 47. Enumerate any three features of ‘regur’ soil. 

Answer : (i) Regur soil is also known as black soil.

(ii) It is ideal for growing cotton, so it is also known as ”black cotton soil.

(iii) It is made up of extremely fine clayey material.

(iv) It is rich in soil nutrients, calcium carbonate, magnesium, potash and lime.

(v) It develops cracks in hot weather. It can hold moisture and is sticky when wet.

5 Marks Questions

Question 48. Describe any five distinct characteristics of ‘Arid soils’. 

Answer : (i) Arid soils range from red to brown in colour.

(ii) Sandy in texture and saline in nature.

(iii) Evaporation is faster, soil lacks humus and moisture.

(iv) Soil occupied by Kankar. (v) Kankar restricts the infiltration of water.

Question 49. Why is soil considered as a resource? Explain with five arguments. 

Answer : (i) Soil is considered as a resource because it is used to satisfy our needs.

(ii) It is the most important renewable natural resource.

(iii) It is the medium of plant growth.

(iv) It supports different types of living organisms on the Earth.

(v) It is the base of our life.

Question 50. Explain resource planning. What are the steps involved in resource planning? 


Why is resource planning essential in India? 


What is resource planning? Why is resource planning essential? Explain it with three reasons. 

Answer : Resource planning is a technique or skill for proper utilization of resources.

(a) As resources are limited, their planning is necessary so that we can use them properly and also save them for our future generations.

(b) Resources are not only limited but they are distributed over different parts of the country.

(c) Resource planning is also essential for production of resources and to protect them from over-exploitation.

Question 51. Provide a suitable classification for resources on the basis of ownership. Mention main features of any three types of such resources. 

Answer :  (i) Classification for resources on the basis of ownership:

(a) Individual resources

(b) Community owned resources

(c) National resources

(d) International resources

(a) Individual resources : Resources which are privately owned against the payment of revenue by individuals. e.g., ponds, pasture lands etc.

(b) Community owned resources : Resources which are accessible to all the members of a community, e. g., picnic spots.

(c) National resources : All the resources (minerals, water resources, forests, wildlife, land) which are present in the political boundaries and oceanic area of a nation up to 12 nautical miles in the ocean from the coast, termed as terrestrial water and resources therein belong to the nation.

(d) International resources : There are international institutions which regulate some resources. The oceanic resources beyond 200 nautical miles of the Exclusive Economic Zone belong to open ocean and no individual country can utilise these without the concurrence of international institutions.

Question 52. What type of soil is found in the river deltas of the eastern coast? Give four main features of this type of soil.


Describe alluvial soil under the following heads:

(i) Formation

(ii) Distribution

(iii) Nutrients

Answer : Alluvial soil is found in the entire northern plain It is the most widely spread soil of India. Main features of alluvial soil:

(i) It is formed by the deposition of materials brought down by the Himalayan rivers.

(ii) It is highly fertile.

(iii) It consists of various proportions of sand, silt and clay.

(iv) It is rich in potash, phosphoric acid and lime but deficient in organic matter.