1 Mark Questions
Question 1 : Define security.
Answer : Security mainly refers to freedom from threats. Existence of human being and life of a country is full of threats, concludingly, security is related to extremely dangerous threats which could endanger to core values and these values are not repairable.
Question 2 : Define cooperative security.
Answer : Cooperative security means to achieve security with the help of cooperating among the countries at the bilateral, regional or global level. It may include International Organisations, NGOs, trade unions etc.
Question 3 : What is meant by disarmament?
Answer : Disarmament requires all states to give up certain types of weapons. For instance, the 1972 Biological Weapons Convention (BWC) and 1992 Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) banned the production and possession of these weapons.
Question 4 : Mention any two new threats to the security of a state.
Answer : Two new threats to the security of a state are:
Question 5 : How is balance of power a component of traditional security?
Answer : Balance of power refers to the maintenance of balance of military power in comparison to a neighbouring country. The governments have to be very careful regarding balance of power between nations, as at some point of time in future any government can opt to be aggressive.
Question 6 : How is alliance building a component of traditional security?
Answer : An association or an alliance is a partnership of states that coordinate with each other to deter and defend against military attack. This is done to increase the effective power in comparison of other countries.
Question 7 : Why human security is more important in the contemporary world than territorial security?
Answer : Human security has been given priority over territorial security because a secured state does not imply secured people. If we look into the last 100 years, maximum number of people have been killed by their own governments rather than foreign armies.
Question 8 : What is human security?
Answer : By human security we mean the security of integrity rights and self-respect of human being along with their life, dignity and honour.
Question 9 : State any one measure to deal with terrorism as a new source of thereat to security.
Answer : Terrorism is a new source of threat to security. International cooperation can work in dealing with terrorism.
Question 10 : What is meant by global security?
Answer : Global security means international cooperation to combat various international issues. The idea of global security emerged in the 1990s in response to threats like global warming, terrorism, AIDS, etc.
Question 11 : What is meant by ‘territorial security’?
Answer : Territorial security means security against threats from across the borders and from within the country. It protects and safeguards the territory of a country.
Question 12 : What is the basic difference between the ‘traditional’ and ‘non-traditional’ concept of security?
Answer : Traditional security deals with use or threat of use of military whereas non-traditional security go beyond military threats and include threats that endanger human existence.
Question 13 : What did BWC (Biological Weapons Convention), 1972 decide?
Answer : Biological Weapons Convention (BWC) of 1972 decided to ban the production and possession of biological and chemical weapons.
2 Mark Questions
Question 1 : Mention any two human rights in the political field.
Answer : The two human rights in the political field are:
(i) Right to freedom of speech
(ii0 Right to assemble peacefully
Question 2 : Highlight any two threats to a country’s security as per the traditional notion of security.
Answer : Two threats as per the traditional notion of security are:
(i) Military threats which endangers the core values of sovereignty
(ii) Balance of power which means some countries are bigger and stronger than other countries.
Question 3 : Explain the traditional concept of ‘security’.
Answer : Traditional security is mainly concerned with the use or threat of use of military force. In traditional security, force is both the principle threat to security and the principle means of achieving security.
Question 4 : What is meant by non-traditional notion of security?
Answer : Non-traditional notions of security extends beyond military threats. It covers various categories of threats and dangers, which affect the conditions of human existence. Non-traditional notions doubts traditional referent of security.
Question 5 : Which are the two forms of cooperative security as per its traditional notion?
Answer : The two forms of cooperative security as per its traditional notion are:
(ii) Confidence building
Question 6 : Mention any two components of India’s security strategy.
Answer : Two components of India’s security strategy are:
(i) Strengthening of military capabilities as India has been involved in conflicts with its neighbours.
(ii) Development of economy is another component of India’s security strategy.
Question 7 : Mention any four components of traditional security.
Answer : Four components of traditional security policy are:
(iii) Balance of power
(iv) Alliance builiding
Question 8 : Mention any four threats, expect war, to human security.
Answer : The four threats to human security are:
(ii) Global poverty
(iii) Human rights violation
Question 9 : List any two new sources of threats to security.
Answer : Two news sources of threats to security are:
(i) Terrorism refers to political violence that targets civilians deliberately and indiscriminately.
(ii) Health epidemics such as HIV-AIDS bird flu and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS).
Question 10 : What is the relationship between traditional security and cooperation?
Answer : Traditional security is closely related with cooperation as it recognises the need for cooperation to limit violence. This limit directly related to both means and ends of the war. It has been universally accepted that countries should go to war for the genuine reasons, say self-defence or to protect from genocide.
4 Mark Questions
Question 1 : What is meant by alliance building as a component of traditional security policy? What are its advantages?
Answer : Alliance building is the fourth element of traditional security policy. An association or an alliance is a partnership of states which coordinate with each other to deter and defend against military attack.
Advantages of alliance building as a component or traditional security policy are:
(i) Most alliances are made in written treaties and are based on fairly clear identification who makes the threat.
(ii) Alliances are formed based on national interest and can change when national interests change.
(iii) Countries from alliances to increase their effective power relative to another country or alliance.
Question 2 : Explain the concept of human security.
Answer : The concept of human security is concerned with protection of people. Though, human security and state security are often considered the same, but secure states do not mean secure people. Protection of citizens from foreign attack is necessary condition for the security of people, but not a sufficient one. During the last 100 years, there have been more killing by their own governments rather than foreign armies.
According to the proponents (supporters) of human security, the basic goal is the protection of individuals. There are however, differences over the threats from which individuals are to be protected. There are basically two categories of proponents.
(i) Narrow concept
(ii) Broad concept
Question 3 : Differentiate between the traditional and the non-traditional notions of security.
Answer : The differences between traditional and non-traditional security are:
|Traditional Security||Non-Traditional Security|
|Traditional security deals with use or threat of use of military.||Non-traditional security go beyond military threats and include threats that endanger human existence.|
|Traditional threats to security endanger the core values of sovereignty, independence and territorial integrity of state||Non-traditional security is concerned with threats that endanger the human than state.|
|Under traditional concept, major focus is one use of military force.||Under non-traditional security military is used as a last resort|
|Under traditional security, force is both principal threat to security and means to achieve security.||Under non-traditional concept, threat is general environment.|
Question 4 : Distinguish between the internal and external notion of traditional security.
Answer : Differences between the internal and external notion of traditional security are:
|Internal Notion||External Notion|
|Although internal security was a part of concerns of the governments historically, however, it was not given much importance||Mostly when we talk of security is traditional conception, it is about external security wherein greatest threats is from another country.|
|Internal security mainly concerned with maintaining internal peace and order. And protecting the country from separatist threats from within.||External notion of security is concerned with protecting sovereignty, independence and territorial integrity from military threats of another country.|
|Under internal notion of traditional security, security policy of states is either suppression of separatist demands or adjustment of their demands.||Under external notion, security policy are-deference, defence, balance of power and alliance building.|
|Internal wars and conflicts now make up more than 95 per cent of all armed conflicts fought anywhere in the world.||Although External security threats still have been major concern for governments, however frequency of war between countries has been reduced greatly now.|
|Internal security problems and threats can be regulated by acknowledged central authority that is government.||In case of external security conflicts, war, and threats there is no acknowledged central authority that stands above everyone else. UNO authority is only to the extent that member state allows.|
Question 5 : Explain any four components of India’s security strategy.
Answer : The security of India involves four components:
(i) Strengthening military capability : This is the very first component of Indian security strategy because India has been involved in conflict with its neighbours. It is surrounded by nuclear-armed countries in the South Asian region, so India first tested a nuclear device in 1974 was justified.
(ii) Strengthening International Norms and Institutions : India took initiatives to bring about a universal and non-discriminatory non-proliferation regime in which all countries would have the same rights and obligations with respect to weapons of mass destruction.
(iii) Internal Security : The very third components of Indian security strategy is geared towards meeting security challenges within the country. Several militant groups from areas such as the Nagaland, Mizoram, Punjab and Kashmir among others have, from time to time, sought to break away from India.
(iv) Development of economy : India wants to develop its economy in a way that the vast mass of citizen are lifted out of poverty and misery and huge economic inequalities and are not allowed to exist.
Question 6 : Identify and explain any four new sources of threat to security.
Answer : Four new threats to security are:
(i) Terrorism : It means political violence targeting civilians intentionally and non-selectively. International terrorism involves the citizens or territory of more than one country. Terrorist groups try to change the political context which they do not like by force or threat of force. Civilians are targeted to terrorize the public.
(ii) Human Rights : They have been categorized into three types:
(a) Political rights : It includes freedom of speech and assembly.
(b) Economic and social rights : It deals with rights related to economic and social nature.
(c) Rights of colonised people : It deals with rights of colonised people or ethnic and indigenous minorities counts.
(iii) Global Poverty : Due to the high per capital income and low population, rich countries become richer and vice versa. Globally, this disparity contributes to the gap between the Northern and Southern countries of the world.
(iv) Migration : International political frictions have been crated due to large scale migration of people from South to North. In order to seek better life and economic opportunities people have migrated to North.
Question 7 : What are the reasons behind the rise of international terrorism?
Answer : The reasons behind the rise of international terrorism are:
(i) Islamic Fundamentalism : Orthodoxy, religious fundamentalism and narrow mindedness which preaches antagonistic feeling among different communities is responsible for this growth of International terrorism.
(ii) US Hegemony : US policy of interference and its intentions of spreading its hegemony across the world has been vehemently opposed by the people of Iraq, Iran, Cuba, Palestine, etc and the same is also responsible for the spread of terrorism across the globe.
(iii) Failure of UN and other International Body : The UNO has remained merely a debating forum under the influence of major world powers and opinions and wishes of developing countries have been largely ignored. The same is responsible for the growth of International terrorism.
(iv) Uneven growth of economy : Some part of the world is over developed whereas major part of the world have remained underdeveloped and people in these countries are facing the problems of rampant unemployment, illiteracy, hunger, poverty etc. Suffering of people in these countries is also responsible for the growth of International terrorism.
6 Mark Questions
Question 1 : What is meant by global poverty? Suggest any two ways to reduce disparity between the poor and the rich at the global level.
Answer : Global poverty is another source of insecurity. At present, world population is 7 billion which is likely to rise upto 9-10 billion in upcoming decades. Currently, half of the world’s population growth occurs in just six countries India, China, Pakistan, Nigeria, Bangladesh and Indonesia. Among the world’s poorest countries, population is expected to triple in the next 50 years, whereas population is shrinking in many rich countries.
High per capital income and low population growth make rich state or rich social groups get richer, whereas low incomes and high population growth reinforce each other to make poor states and poor groups get poorer.
Globally, this disparity contributes to the gap between the Northern and Southern countries of world. Poverty in the South has also been causing large-scale migration to seek a better life and economic opportunities.
Two ways to reduce disparity between the poor and rich at the global level are:
(i) Quality education : Provides children knowledge and life skills to realise their full potential. Education is a means through which employable skills are imparted. To remove poverty globally, governments must ensure quality education to each and every child. Education is a liberating force which suppression, exploitation, etc.
(ii) Economic and social security : To overcome poverty, communities around the world must be provided economic and social securities they need to thrive. Government across the globe must extend basic health care, education, housing, pension, disability insurance, survivor benefits and unemployment insurance to the families living under poverty.
Apart from these, people living in poverty must be ensured to have skills and knowledge they need to secure a livelihood, and support their families.
Question 2 : What is meant by traditional notion of external security? Describe any two components of this type of security.
Answer : Traditional notion of external security means the greatest danger to a country is from military threats. The very origin of this kind of insecurity is other notion, which by threatening the military action perils the core values of sovereignty, independence and territorial integrity. Military action also endangers the lives of ordinary citizens.
The two components are:
(i) Deterrence : It is concerned with prevention of war. It is a strategy intended to dissuade an adversary from taking an action which is not yet started.
(ii) Balance of power : Not every country is equal in terms of power. When other countries are looked around, it can be judged easily that who is threat for our nation in coming future. Some nations are bigger and stronger in comparison to others. The governments have to be very careful regarding balance of power between nations, as at some point of time in future any government can opt to be aggressive.
Question 3 : Explain balance of power as a component of traditional security policy. How could a state achieve this balance?
Answer : Balance of power as a component of traditional security policy : The balance of power is the third component of traditional security policy. It means that not every country is equal in terms of power. When other countries are looked around, it can be judged easily that who is threat for our nation is coming future. Some countries are bigger and stronger.
For instance, a neighbouring country may not be preparing to attack. In fact there is no strong reason for a war or attack to happen. But the fact that the country is strong and bigger is a kind of symbol that it will attack in future if circumstances arise. On the basis of speculation, governments are very sensitive to the balance of power between their country and other countries. It is important to maintain a favourable balance of power with the countries those they have had issues in the past.
In the following way state/nation can achieve balance of power:
(i) Building up one’s military power is essential to have a balance of power.
(ii) Developing economic and technological power are also important since they are the basis for military power.
Question 4 : What is meant by traditional notions of internal and external security? Explain.
Answer : This has been answered earlier.
Question 5 : Describe any three new sources of threat to security giving examples for each.
Answer : Security mainly refers to freedom from threats. Existence of human being and life of a country is full of threats, concludingly, security is related to extremely dangerous threats which could endanger the core values and these values are not repairable.
Question 6 : What is meant by non-traditional notion of security? Differentiate between the narrow and broad concept of human security.
Answer : Meaning of non-traditional notions of security : It includes a wide range of threats and dangers which affect the condition of human existence. The non-traditional notion of security conception focus has been on state, its territory and governing institutions while in non-traditional conception, human kind has become concern along with state. Non-traditional views of security have been called as ‘human security’ or ‘global security’.
Difference between ‘narrow’ and broad concept of human security : Supporters of the ‘narrow’ concepts of human security emphasis on violent threats to individuals or as Kofi Annan believes ‘protection of communities and individuals from internal violence’.
On the other hand, proponents of the ‘broad’ concept of human security emphasis on the threat agenda that should include hunger, disease and natural disaster that kill far more people than war, genocide and terrorism together.
Thus, human security policy, they argue, should protect people from these threats as well as from violence.
Question 7 : What is meant by security? Mention any four components of Indian Security strategy.
Answer : Security mainly refers to freedom from threats. Existence of human being and life of a country is full of threats, concludingly, security, is related to extremely dangerous threats which could endanger the core values and these values are not repairable.